This 11th Dynasty vizier assumed the throne when Montuhotep IV died. It is believed that Amenemhet usurped the throne from the reigning king. He campaigned against the Libyans and the Asiatics in the Sinai. There he erected the Wall of the Prince to guard the eastern borders. He also built a trading post in Nubia at Kerma.
He named his capital city, (on the border of Upper and Lower Egypt), Itj-Tawy, Seizer of Two Lands. Among his many wives was Nefrutotenen, mother of Senwosret I. Amenemhet made Senwosret I co-ruler in 1971 B.C. Amenemhets line, from non-royal birth, began a golden age for Egypt. The Testament of Amenemhet , included in the Milligan Papyrus and the Papyrus Sallier II, was written as a commemorative following Amenemhets death. The Testament defines royal obligations and the needs of the people. It states that there are perils awaiting a king that is not alert to those around him. It also states that loneliness and personal sacrifice make for a good king.