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Discovering Writing: Learning Egyptian Hieroglyphs - Lesson 3 (Part III)


Learning Egyptian Hieroglyphs - Lesson 3 (Part III)

 

by Caroline Seawright

 

 

Meaning of the ear determinativemf sdjm*f Form


 

Details of this topic will be discussed later, but it should be noted that the ear determinativemf sdjm*f form excludes the meaning of hardly any English tense or mood (see the previous lesson, Dependence, Tense and Mood.) Because it is a past tense, it is replaced by another form, the ear determinativemnf sdjm*n*f form, which will be described later.

 

At the moment, render the ear determinativemf*f form as the English present tense. Here are three common uses of the form:

 

1. It is often used without any introductory particle in rendering the equivalent of and English clause of purpose:

  • habwalking determinativekscribe determinativeman determinativedjdfschrbook determinativek hab*k ssh, djd*f schr*k 'Thou sendest the scribe that he may say thy plan'

    2. It may be used to express a wish:

  • habwalking determinativekscribe determinativeman determinative hab*k ssh 'Mayest thou send the scribe/Send thou the scribe'

     

    3. Preceeded by the particle ykhbook determinative ykh the fundamental meaning of which seems to be 'then' or 'therefore', it expresses a consequence:

     

  • ykhbook determinativedjdsrofficial determinativeman determinative ych djd sr 'Then the official will say...'

    ykhbook determinativedjdknbird determinative stroke determinativek ych djd*k n sa*k 'Then shalt thou say to thy son...'

     

    Vocabulary

     

maeye determinativeaa

maa

see

djaaboat determinative

dja

cross, ferry across

rshnose determinativeman eating determinative

rsh

rejoice, be glad

habwalking determinative

hab

send

bird determinative stroke determinativeman determinative

sa

son

bird determinative twoman determinative

sat

daughter

yt horned snake determinativeman determinative (var t horned snake determinativeman determinative)

yt1

father

bakman determinative

bak

man-servant

baktwoman determinative

bakt

maid-servant

waat road determinative (var road determinative t stroke determinative)

wat

road, way, side

chaahall determinative

cha

office, hall

ka determinative tman carrying basket determinative

kat

construction, work, device

that stroke determinativeman determinative

thaty

vizier

`a phallus determinativedonkey determinative

`a

donkey, ass

sshttaabook determinative

sshta

secret

ytrwwater determinative

ytrw

river

mshcrocodile determinative

msh

crocodile

r stroke determinative

r

mouth, utterance

head determinative stroke determinative

hr

face, sight

head determinative stroke determinative

hr

upon, concerning, because of; before suffixes written head determinative r

m

m

in, with (of instrument), from as; before suffixes ym

 

 

1 The f in this word has been shown to be a determinative with some symbolic meaning, so it is not written or said as if it were an alphabetic sign.

 

Exercises

 

Try to translate the following in hieroglyphs, with transliteration sounds:

 

The crocodile is in the river

The moon rejoices when the sun is in his horizon

Then (ych) shall thy name be heard by the vizier

This scribe is in his office by day (and) by night

The donkey goes down to the city upon another road

The scribe sends this boat that we may cross in it

He rejoices because of thy utterance

This land is in joy when thou art in the sky

He fares down to this city, his daughter with him

 

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