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Discovering Writing: Learning Egyptian Hieroglyphs - Lesson 3 (Part III)


Learning Egyptian Hieroglyphs - Lesson 3 (Part III)

by Caroline Seawright


Meaning of the ear determinativemf sdjm*f Form

Details of this topic will be discussed later, but it should be noted that the ear determinativemf sdjm*f form excludes the meaning of hardly any English tense or mood (see the previous lesson, Dependence, Tense and Mood.) Because it is a past tense, it is replaced by another form, the ear determinativemnf sdjm*n*f form, which will be described later.

At the moment, render the ear determinativemf*f form as the English present tense. Here are three common uses of the form:

1. It is often used without any introductory particle in rendering the equivalent of and English clause of purpose:

  • habwalking determinativekscribe determinativeman determinativedjdfschrbook determinativek hab*k ssh, djd*f schr*k 'Thou sendest the scribe that he may say thy plan'

    2. It may be used to express a wish:

  • habwalking determinativekscribe determinativeman determinative hab*k ssh 'Mayest thou send the scribe/Send thou the scribe'

    3. Preceeded by the particle ykhbook determinative ykh the fundamental meaning of which seems to be 'then' or 'therefore', it expresses a consequence:

  • ykhbook determinativedjdsrofficial determinativeman determinative ych djd sr 'Then the official will say...'

    ykhbook determinativedjdknbird determinative stroke determinativek ych djd*k n sa*k 'Then shalt thou say to thy son...'

    Vocabulary


  • maeye determinativeaa

    maa

    see

    djaaboat determinative

    dja

    cross, ferry across

    rshnose determinativeman eating determinative

    rsh

    rejoice, be glad

    habwalking determinative

    hab

    send

    bird determinative stroke determinativeman determinative

    sa

    son

    bird determinative twoman determinative

    sat

    daughter

    yt horned snake determinativeman determinative (var t horned snake determinativeman determinative)

    yt1

    father

    bakman determinative

    bak

    man-servant

    baktwoman determinative

    bakt

    maid-servant

    waat road determinative (var road determinative t stroke determinative)

    wat

    road, way, side

    chaahall determinative

    cha

    office, hall

    ka determinative tman carrying basket determinative

    kat

    construction, work, device

    that stroke determinativeman determinative

    thaty

    vizier

    `a phallus determinativedonkey determinative

    `a

    donkey, ass

    sshttaabook determinative

    sshta

    secret

    ytrwwater determinative

    ytrw

    river

    mshcrocodile determinative

    msh

    crocodile

    r stroke determinative

    r

    mouth, utterance

    head determinative stroke determinative

    hr

    face, sight

    head determinative stroke determinative

    hr

    upon, concerning, because of; before suffixes written head determinative r

    m

    m

    in, with (of instrument), from as; before suffixes ym

    1 The f in this word has been shown to be a determinative with some symbolic meaning, so it is not written or said as if it were an alphabetic sign.

    Exercises

    Try to translate the following in hieroglyphs, with transliteration sounds:

    The crocodile is in the river

    The moon rejoices when the sun is in his horizon

    Then (ych) shall thy name be heard by the vizier

    This scribe is in his office by day (and) by night

    The donkey goes down to the city upon another road

    The scribe sends this boat that we may cross in it

    He rejoices because of thy utterance

    This land is in joy when thou art in the sky

    He fares down to this city, his daughter with him

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