by Jimmy Dunn
Before Egypt became an Islamic state, it was a mostly Christian country with an ancient Christian heritage. It was a land where Jesus and his family were known to have traveled, and where early Apostles came to spread his word, particularly at first in Alexandria.
Most of the ancient Christian churches of Egypt, contrary to what many travelers may believe, are not located in Old, or Coptic Cairo. What makes Old Cairo special is the fact that a number of ancient churches are located in the area, making visits by tourists convenient, since most of them arrive for tours in that city.
In reality, most of the ancient Christian churches, of which only a very few recently discovered examples predate the 4th century, are located in monasteries and smaller cities throughout Egypt, though in some areas there are concentrations not to be found elsewhere. Many of these churches are built on sacred ground where it is believed that the baby Jesus and his family made stops in their journey through Egypt. Others, many of which are associated with monasteries, are more isolated, built at a time when the Christian religion was outlawed within the Roman empire, or afterwards, when there were violent conflicts between the eastern Christianity of Egypt and the western Christians who ruled Egypt (the Romans).
However, while most text points to an ancient church in Egypt being Coptic, or for example, Greek Orthodox, the earliest churches were technically neither, because Christianity in Egypt predates these slightly more modern divisions. Today, Coptic Christians, who almost by definition are Egyptian Christians (though now, for example, the Ethiopian church has been . incorporated into the Coptic faith), are dominant, but by no means the only Christians in Egypt. There are, of course, the Greeks Orthodox, along with Catholics, and various Protestants variations, among others.
Design of a Coptic Church
Because of the journey of the Holy Family through Egypt, some of Egypt's Christian churches are very unusual. Some have been built in caves where folk tradition believes the baby Jesus rested. Others, and the less obvious in Egypt, took over ancient pharaonic temples and other pagan buildings where inscriptions and art was often destroyed to accommodate their beliefs. For example, while most of us familiar with pharaonic monuments associate Deir el-Bahri with ancient Egyptian mortuary temples, the name of this place is that of a church, though it is no longer used for that purpose. Others take more classical forms, such as the basilica, which was probably predominantly used for houses of worship during the 5th century. Many of these are in Upper (Southern Egypt), including a large Basilica at Hermopolis Magna, the Church of the Archimandrite Shenoute in the White Monastery, the Church of Saint Bishoi in the Red Monastery, and the large church that belongs to the pachomian monastery at Faw Qibli.
Layout of the Dendera Chruch
Most Ancient Egyptian Basilicas mainly rely on Roman design, retaining very few ancient Egyptian elements. However, it should be noted that the basilican style was used in ancient Egyptian temples, such as the great Hypostyle Hall at Karnak. An excellent example representative of early Coptic church architecture is the Basilica at Dendera, It has a nave with two aisles and a trefoil shaped sanctuary at the east end fronted by two columns which once supported an arch. The church is entered by way of two side doors at the western end that led into the narthex, which is connected to the nave by three doors.
Ancient Churches in Egypt (Also see Christian Monasteries1):
Other Information on Churches
None Specific Churches
- Christian Churches and Monasteries of Luxor and the West Bank
- Christian Antinoopolis (Antinoe, or Ansina) and its Environs
- Christian Ruins of the Kharga Oasis
- Christian Oxyrhynchus (modern al-Bahnasa) and its Environs
- Abu Serga (St. Sergius), Church of - Cairo
- Saint Barbara's Church (Sitt Barbara) - Cairo
- Saint George, Church of the at Haret Zuwaila
- Saint George (Mari Girgis), Greek Church of - Cairo
- Hanging Church (El Mu'allaqa)- Cairo
- Holy Virgin. Church of in Babylon Al-Darag - Cairo
- Holy Virgin Mary, Church of the at Haret Zuwaila
- Saint Mercurius, The Church of - Cairo
- Saint Mercuris, The Church of at Haret Zuwaila
- Menas, Church of (with Annexed Churches of Saint Bahnam & Saint George) - Cairo
- St. Mercurius, Church of - - St. Paul's Monastery
- St. Michael, Church of - - St. Paul's Monastery
- St. Paul, Church of - St. Paul's Monastery
- The Church of the Archangel Gabriel (Monastery of the Archangel Gabriel
- The Church of the Virgin Mary (Monastery of the Virgin Mary)
- Holly Virgin, Church of at Dair al-Adhra
- Funerary Chuch - Monastery of Apa Bane
- Sanctuary Church - Monastery of Apa Bane
- Church of Saint Theodore at the Al-Sanquriya Monastery near ancient Oxyrhynchus
- North and South Church of the Monastery of the Martyrs (Deir as-Shuhada)
- The Church of St. Matthew at the Monastery of St. Matthew the Potter
- Church of Saint Pshoi (Red Monastery)
- Church of the Holy Virgin Mary (Red Monastery)
- Arcadius, Basiclica of - Karm Abu Menas- Between Alexandria and Wadi Natrun
- Holy Virgin Mary, Church of in the Monastery of al-Baramus
- John the Baptist, Church of in the Monastery of al-Baramus
- Holy Virgin (el-Adra), Church of in the Monastery of the Syrians - Wadi Naturn
- St. Mary (Al-Sitt Mariam, Church of the Lady Mary), Church of in the Monastery of the Syrians - Wadi Naturn
1. Currently, many of the older churches are discussed in our Christian Monastery section. However, we will be working to increase the detail supplied on these churches in this section as well.
|Cairo (The Coptic Museum Old Churches||Gabra, Gawdat||1993||Egyptian International Publishing Company, The||ISBN 977-16-0081-8|
|Christianizing the Roman Empire A.D. 100-400||MacMullen, Ramsay||1984||Yale University Press||ISBN 0-300-03642-6|
|Holy Family in Egypt, The||Unknown||1999||United Printing Publishing & Distributing Co.||None Stated|
|Monastery of St. Catherine, The||Papaioannou, Dr. Evangelos||Undated||Unknown||None Stated|
|Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, The||McManners, John||1992||Oxford University Press||ISBN 0-19-285259-0|
Last Updated: June 12th, 2011