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THE NECROPOLIS OF DEIR EL-MEDINA ON THE WEST BANK AT LUXOR



 

 

 

by Jimmy Dunn

 


Deir el-Medina lies in a small valley between the western slope of the Theban mountain and the small hill of Qurnet Murai. It was the workers village where craftsman and other lived who actually constructed and decorated the tombs on the West Bank at Luxor (ancient Thebes). The artisans who lived in this community built their tombs only a few dozen meters from their town on the heights that overlook the village. The excavated burials here include those of Sennedjem (TT1), a foreman named Inerkhau (TT 229 and TT 359), Pashedu (TT 3), Nakhtamen (TT 218), a sculptor named Ipuy (TT 217), Nebenmaat (TT 219) and Nakhtamen (TT 335). They were all artists during the Ramesside period and were well known for their work on the West Bank. Apparently they paid considerable attention to their own tombs and the arrangement of their necropolis.

 

 

A plan of a none Royal Pyramid at Deir el-Medina

 

In the beginning these were personal tombs, but over time their function was extended to also receive the remains of other family members. However, the structure of the tombs in the necropolis was fairly uniform. They built their tombs almost as if there was a building code requiring specific architectural elements. Customarily, these tombs had an entrance through a small pylon into one or two open courtyards. At the rear of the last courtyard was a small chapel with an entrance made of unburned mudbrick and toped by a small pyramid that occasionally had several rooms excavated in the rock.

 

 

A view of a none Royal Pyramid at Deir el-Medina

 

In every instance we know of, on the back wall of this chapel was a niche where a statue of the deceased and a stele inscribed with the text of the hymn to the sun was housed. This chapel was intended for the worship of the deceased. Even those of not of royal blood attempted to keep their name known and therefore so too their soul.

 

The deceased was buried along with a rich set of funerary objects in a burial chamber excavated below ground level. The underground chambers were reached by way of a steep stair shaft that was either located in the courtyard or one of the interior rooms.

 

The burial chambers had vaulted ceilings and often beautiful decorations, usually of the deceased and his family engaged in their everyday activities.. Other scenes depicted ritualistic activities such as the embalming of the deceased or the Opening of the Mouth ritual. Inscriptions from the Book of the Dead also often adorned the walls.

 

Tombs of the Necropols

TT

NAME

POSITION

REIGN

1

SENNEDJEM

Crew member of the Place of the Truth

Dynasty XIX

2

JABEHENET

Crew member of the Place of the Truth

Rameses II

3

PASHEDU

Crew member of the Place of the Truth. Proprietor of tomb 326

Ramsida

4

KEN

Chiseller of the Place of the Truth. Proprietor of tomb 337

Rameses II

5

NEFERAABET

Crew member of the Place of the Truth

Ramsida

6

NEFERHOTEP and their son NEBNEFER

Overseer of the Place of the Truth

Horemheb to Rameses II

7

RAMOSE

Write of the Place of the Truth. Proprietor of tomb 212 and 250

Rameses II

8

JA

Head in the Great place

Amenhotep II, Thutmes IV, Amenhotep III

9

AMENMOSE

Crew member of the Place of the Truth. Charmer of Scorpions

Ramsida

10

PENBUY And KASA

Crew members of the place of the truth

Rameses II

210

RAUEBEN

Crew member of the Place of the Truth

Dynasty XIX

211

PANEB

Crew member of the Gentleman of Two Territories of the Place of the Truth

Dynasty XIX

212

RAMOSE

To see tomb 7

Rameses II

213

PENAMON

Crew member of the Gentleman of the Two Earth, Crew member of the Place of the Truth

Dynasty XX

214

JAUI

Guard of the Place of the Truth, Crew member of Amn in Luxor

Ramsida

215

AMENEMOPET

Write real of the Place of the Truth. The camera of sarcfago is tomb 165)

Dynasty XIX

216

NEFERHOTEP

Overseer

Rameses II-Sethy II

217

IPUY

Escultor

Rameses II

218

AMENAJT

Crew member of the Place of the Truth in the West of Tebas

Ramsida

219

NEBENMAAT

Crew member of the Place of the Truth in the West of Tebas

Ramsida

220

JAEMTERI

Crew member of the Place of the Truth

Ramsida

250

RAMOSE

To see tomb 7

Rameses II

265

AMENEMOPET

To see tomb 215, that it is his chapel

Dynasty XIX

266

AMENNAJT

Head Craftsman of the Gentleman of Two Territories of the Place of the Truth in the West of Tebas

Dynasty XIX

267

IT HAS

Official of Workers of the Place of the Truth in the West of Tebas. Molder of the Images of All the Gods in the House of Gold

Dynasty XIX

268

Familiar tomb of NEBNAJT

Crew member of the Place of the Truth

Dynasty XIX

290

IRUNEFER

Crew member of the Place of the Truth in the West

Ramsida

291

And A NEJTMIN

Crew member in the great place and Nejtmin Crew member of the Place of the Truth

End dynasty XVIII

292

PASHEDU

Crew member of the Place of the Truth

Sethy I to Rameses II

298

BAKI and THEIR Possible father UNNEFER

Overseer of the Place of the Truth and father (possible) of Unnefer, Crew member of the Gentleman of Two Territories of the Place of the Truth

Ramsida

299

INHERKAU

Overseer of the Gentleman of Two Territories of the Place of the Truth. Also proprietor of tomb 359

Rameses III and IV

321

JAEMOPET

Crew member of the Place of the Truth

Ramsida

322

PENSHENABU

Crew member of the Place of the Truth

Ramsida

323

PESHEDU

Draftsman of Amn of the Place of the Truth and in the Temple of Sokar

Sethy I

325

POSSIBLY SMEN (in cones)

------------------

Dynasty XVIII

326

PASHEDU

Overseer. To see tomb 3

Ramsida

327

TUROBAY

Crew member of the Place of the Truth

Ramsida

328

IT HAS

Crew member of the Place of the Truth

Dynasty XX

329

MOSE And MOSE And IPY

Two Mose. One grandson of the other with annexed tomb, and Ipy its son. All Crew members of the Place of the Truth

Ramsida

330

KARO

Crew member of the Place of the Truth

Dynasty XIX

335

NEJTAMON

Priest Uab de Amenhotep I, gentleman of the two earth, Chiseller of Amn, Crew member of the Place of the Truth

Dynasty XIX

336

NEFERRONPET

Crew member of the Place of the Truth

Dynasty XIX

337

KEN

Chiseller of the Place of the Truth. Usurped by Esjons (dynasty 21-22). To see tomb 4

Rameses II

338

MAY

Draftsman of Amn

End dynasty XVIII

339

HUY And PASHEDU

Crew member of the Place of Verdad and Pashedu, crew member of the Place of the Truth, Stone Worker of the Necrpolis de Amn in Karnak

Rameses II

340

AMENEMHAT

Crew member of the Place of the Truth (perhaps proprietor of tomb 354)

Principles Dynasty XVIII

354

Without text, perhaps AMENEMHAT

Perhaps the proprietor of tomb 340. In this tomb they were a box with its name

Principles Dynasty XVIII

355

Perhaps AMENPAHAPI

Crew member of the Place of the Truth

Dynasty XX

356

AMENEMUIA

Crew member of the Place of the Truth

Dynasty XIX

357

DYEHUTYHIRMAKTUF

Crew member of the Place of the Truth

Dynasty XIX

359

INHHERKAU

To see tomb 299

Rameses III and IV

360

KAHA

Overseer of the Place of the Truth

Rameses II

361

HUY

Great carpenter of the Place of the Truth

Sethy I

 

 

References:

 

Title

Author

Date

Publisher

Reference Number

Atlas of Ancient Egypt

Baines, John; Malek, Jaromir

1980

Les Livres De France

None Stated

Guide to the Valley of the Kings

Siliotti, Alberto

1997

Barnes & Noble Books

ISBN 0-7607-0483-x

History of Ancient Egypt, A

Grimal, Nicolas

1988

Blackwell

None Stated

Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, The

Shaw, Ian

2000

Oxford University Press

ISBN 0-19-815034-2

Valley of the Kings

Weeks, Kent R.

2001

Friedman/Fairfax

ISBN 1-5866-3295-7

Valley of the Kings

Heyden, A. Van Der

 

Al Ahram/Elsevier

 

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