All in a Week's Work Finding a Shipwreck in the Red Sea
By Ned (Mr. Wreck)Middleton
Strange as it may seem to some, but as I approached my twenty third year of Diving, I had yet to visit the Red Sea. I could probably have come up with a number of flimsy excuses as to why not - though the truth was, I simply never got around to it. This often put me at a disadvantage when, even editors would suddenly say - "well you must know what the Thistlegorm is like" or "well its bit like the Red Sea" - and, of course, I had never been there. As October approached, however, this was about to change - and in quite a dramatic fashion, the oddest part was that it all began with a trip to Grenada.
Now I often travel by unconventional means - after all, I have to get other people to pay my fare and then I have to convince the carrier that allowing my 200kg on board without charging excess baggage really is in their own best interests. So, when it comes to the end of any article and I find myself recommending a travel company I have to be very careful.
Thus it was with my piece on Grenada and, after a couple of exploratory calls to companies with whom I was not satisfied, I ended up calling Diving World. Suddenly, I knew I was talking to a company who understood Divers and their needs. No, they did not grab the opportunity to be associated with Grenada in the way that others had tried, they simply pointed me in another direction on that issue (and they were right!) and then brought the conversation around to the Red Sea - after all, Diving World are Red Sea specialists - and they spoke my language.
Yassin Oweiss is the quietly spoken owner of Diving World and, it seems, my call came just at the right time for something he had in mind. Of course, I had a little research and preparation to complete and I started with whatever Guide Books I could find, extracted all the articles I could lay my hands on and found myself studying sites like the Carnatic, Ghiannis D and, of course, the mighty Thistlegorm. By November I was ready - just as Yassin telephoned again.
The trip was now scheduled for three weeks - commencing 18 December. Sounded good to me and I promptly ordered more film. Then he telephoned again. Firstly, he asked me if I knew anything about the Rosalie Moller - I did not (though I did know who to ask!), then he asked for my views on the conservation of shipwrecks - and I made them clear.
I know for a fact that my views are not shared by all Divers - but allow me to explain by using a hypothetical example: Shipwreck (A) is a steel cargo ship sitting upright, virtually undamaged on an even keel - in, say 30m. Generally speaking she is complete and intact with all portholes in place. On the Bridge we find the Bell, Telegraphs and Compass and this the Diver to pause and visualise what it might have been like when the vessel was underway. Then there is Shipwreck (B). Structurally, very similar in size, attitude and condition - except that all the brass fittings have gone. Now, I know which I would rather photograph - but which would you rather dive? My attitude is best summarised, therefore, as "Take only Pictures - Leave only Bubbles" - and do so on behalf of fellow Divers.
That, however, was exactly what Yassin wanted to hear and he then asked me if I would be willing to appear on Nile Television and meet with certain Government Officials. When I agreed, he said that this would take up the bulk of the third week. Back at the drawing board, however, I could find nothing whatsoever on the Rosalie Moller until the National Maritime Museum sent me a fax of an old photograph of her sister ship - the Hubert built in 1910 and pages from two separate books showing "Rosalie Moller - raised after war and broken up!"
Now, as the days progressed - and please dont ask me how, I gained the impression that the Staff of Diving World in Hurghada had actually found a "new" wreck but when I arrived it was the other way around - they thought I knew where it was. Suddenly the trip began to take a different shape as, within moments of arriving we began to discuss the prospect of a search. Certainly the idea had merit - but lets be realistic. Between us we had virtually no information, a faxed copy of an old photograph - and even that was of another ship, and a general area so vague it equated to a search area "south of Plymouth" and on top of that the Rosalie Moller was scrapped over 50 years ago. On the positive side, however, we did have our combined experience and passion for Diving and one or two clues.
I joined the M.V. Miss Nouran - and soon discovered her to be one of the finest Live-aboard Boats currently operating in the Red Sea. Easy to say I know - but, believe me, I saw much of the competition over the next three weeks and, well, you dont want to know about some of those - much less Dive with them! Our Dive Guide was that well known local character Ali Baba - a man who has been deaf since birth but, who can lip-read in five languages. Ali Baba is an exceptionally fine Diving Guide and Instructor with a great sense of humour and, in a world where other Diving Boats can often make things chaotic for the novice, his one outstanding quality is that he cares!
Being the week before Christmas there were only ten Divers on board a vessel equipped to take 16. Below Decks there are 6 double berths and at deck level there is a further four-man berth all with en-suite - and that means your own shower and flushing toilet. Food is served after each of the three main Dives of the day with the evening meal delayed for those who wish to get an extra night dive into an already busy schedule - and do tuck in, there is plenty.
The crew were pretty amazing and looked after our every need. We were assured that they were the best and it soon became easy to see why. They also worked very hard - one minute they were cooking, cleaning and looking after us, and the next they were manning the ropes, laying out mooring lines, driving the inflatable boat or simply helping us in and out of the water.
As with all such trips we were a fairly disparate bunch with a variety of standards, experience and background. This included two pairs of Technical Divers who had ordered Nitrox. I have yet to use mixed gases but the high level of expertise of these four Divers was going to prove most useful in the days ahead.
Saturday 19 December 1998 was a beautiful day and very soon, this small group of Divers - all brought together by chance, set off on a one-week excursion in luxurious style. Within an hour or so we were Diving some of those excellent Reefs that combine to make the entire Red Sea an underwater Marine Park of such unique diversity of flora and fauna that it will always stand as one of the Underwater Wonders of the World. Names like Umm Grammar and Gota Eida Reef were soon tripping off the tongue as we each returned to our floating base excited by what we had just encountered.
Then, with the most successful indoctrination into the delights of the Red Sea behind us, it was time to contemplate tomorrow when we would be visiting the Ghiannis D and the Thistlegorm. I had become partnered with Shane Brown - a Physical Training Instructor from Nottingham. Shane proved to be a great companion and it was a pleasure to watch him rapidly developing into a very good Diver indeed. He also began to insist (and I tell the truth!) on carrying my spare camera - and many a good Diver has been well paid for much less.
The Ghiannis D was a great Dive. The stern section is particularly dramatic - reaching almost to the surface. The wreck, however, lies in two completely separate sections and the Bows are often overlooked - though, personally, I found these to be the best.
Then, for me at least, it was a very long-overdue visit to the famous Thistlegorm and, I have to say that, as I entered the water, I was wondering whether or not any vessel could live up to the hype - both good and bad, which surrounds this particular ship. As we approached the site, it was midday and Ali Baba was first in the water to secure the mooring line. He takes great pride in his work and secured the Miss Nouran to the Thistlegorms anchor chains at the bows.
Ironically, the Thistlegorm suffers greatly from those Diving Boats which moor to the shallower reaches of the wreck - such as the Bridge, with some tying to each other. With the larger Boats weighing in at something like 20 tons, it is easy to see how the combined force of these Boats is able to exert pressures for which no big ships superstructure was ever designed as the long rolling waves continually test their lines. The effect is catastrophic and large sections of the Thistlegorms Bridge are now found on the seabed on the starboard side, whereas another, even larger section, was seen hanging down and swaying precariously over the port side - all pulled off by the Diving Boats who are dependent on this ship for their very livelihood.
Looking back, I must confess that - before I got into the water, I had wondered why Ali Baba had taken that little extra time to take our line down as far as the anchor chains. Rather obvious when you think about it, he was using one of the Thistlegorms strong points - but then he cares.
Nevertheless, the Thistlegorm is still an incredible experience and we soon found those WW2 vehicles and motorcycles - exactly as depicted in the many accounts I have read of this truly amazing shipwreck. Even now, the vehicles look as though they are still waiting to be unloaded. With the powerful lights from my twin strobes illuminating this fantastic scene, it was also all too obvious why so many "downbeat" articles persist about this single shipwreck. The motorcycles are now all pushed over as Divers have searched for something to take home. The badges, pedals, twist grips and tool kits are all long gone. As for the other vehicles, only a few steering wheels are left - but, worst of all, in order to get at those steering wheels, or another souvenir from the engine, Divers have forced their way in through the roof or the bonnet of each vehicle - thus maximising the damage caused in search of a trophy - only to throw it away a few months later... I rest my case.
For the rest of Saturday, Sunday and Monday morning, we enjoyed the extensive delights of a vessel that produces a curious conflict within any caring Diver - and even then we had not seen it all. The Thistlegorm is still the most outstanding accessible shipwreck in the world and will remain "The Worlds Foremost Diving Attraction" for some years to come. Sadly, however, the rate of decline is far worse than I had ever imagined and if not halted - like now!, she will soon become a distant memory - perhaps then, the World of Diving will allow this particular War Grave to rest in Peace...
Monday night found us anchored at Bluff Point where, right below our stern was the smallest remnant of a shipwreck - in only 12m of water. A sheltered spot, a well lit Boat and a small wreck are the ideal ingredients for a good night dive - and this proved to be a veritable haven for fish life with the biggest delight being provided by a pair of very large Moray Eels.
We find the Rosalie Moller
Bluff Point, however, is only an hours sailing from the general search area for the Rosalie Moller and, with this in mind, Ali Baba invited me to join him and. Captain Hassan is widely regarded as the second best Captain in the entire Red Sea. Not that he minds being second best - everyone acknowledges his father as an outstanding figure in this regard - he found the Thistlegorm in 1963!
Captain Hassan handed me a chart and asked me to plot a certain position. Where he got it I do not know - but it was right on the edge of the general search area. He smiled "We go tomorrow" he said and at 0630 hrs the engines coughed into life. This normally provides an early morning call for all those on board, but today there was an added element of excitement and few were still asleep. Most of us were checking we had a "good fill." Every time Ali Baba looked at me he smiled and said two words "Rosie Muller!" - and somehow, I suspect the ship will eventually become known by this slightly altered name. By 0800 hrs we were searching.
Now, I must confess, the last time I discovered a shipwreck (well sort of!) was 16 years ago. So, my natural optimism was being tempered by a distinct lack of information. I was well aware that the chances of success were slim - in fact we had no chance at all. True, we did know something about a ship that no longer existed and a very approximate location - but altogether hardly enough... To make matters worse, none of us had quite realised before we sailed that the Miss Nouran was not equipped for searching - no reason why she should be. Apart from thick mooring/anchor lines, we had nothing and apart from fenders - no buoys. On top of that, not one Diver had a reel or SMB.
Another very important element to be taken into consideration was the fact that my fellow passengers were all paying guests and here to enjoy as much Diving as possible during their one-week holiday. They had not paid to waste time going up and down in search of something that was, in all honesty, probably not even there!. Ideally, we might have gone diving first - but the search area was well away from the recognised sites and there really was nothing else readily available. Everyone agreed, therefore, we search for Two Hours and no more.
The ensuing search then quickly became a team effort. Chris Gleadow - one of the technical divers, took charge of the GPS - and, sitting right in front of the Captain, directed him accordingly. I watched the Decca screen and had my compass ready to take bearings. Others joined us from time to time and there was a high degree of expectation as the boat was slowly conned - first one way and then another.
The first trace on the Decca screen was simply unbelievable. We passed over the objective from side to side and I stared in disbelief at the image before me. It looked like one of those childs drawings - a "V" shaped hull with a box representing the bridge and a funnel on top. For a moment, I thought someone below decks was feeding a computer image onto the screen - but then it was gone.
Excitement mounted as this information went out - but we had nothing to throw into the water to mark the spot.Then Geof Loe came onto the bridge. He and his wife Trudy were the second pair of technical Divers and, having spent 15 years in the Royal Marines, Geof was quite expert with GPS and Decca. With Geof and Chris working together with the Skipper and Ali Baba how could we miss.
Very quickly our two hours were up - though we carried on with comments like "but were almost there." Unfortunately, more than a little discontent was beginning to appear amongst some who were not taking part in the search. Then we passed over the shipwreck again and once again we were astonished by the picture on the screen. This time the trace was from end to end and another child-like drawing appeared - a long object on top of which was a box and a funnel. Our boat was barely moving. Chris punched-in the co-ordinates, the Captain scanned the horizon for transits and I took bearings on various distant points and then, yet again, it was gone again - but now we had a plan.
Chris got into the inflatable and directed the crewman to the very spot where the cross-hairs on the GPS met - and they anchored . We now had a fixed datum point within 100m of the wreck (that being the level of accuracy of the GPS). The Captain slowly conned the boat around the Inflatable until we were stopped right over the wreck. Down went the big anchor and the inflatable was recalled.
The first two Divers were Chris and his technical diving buddy - Peter Watts. I handed them both a laminated copy of the photograph of the Hubert requesting they try to identify any key features. It was now after 1100 hrs and this was the first dive of the day. The plan was for them to spend 5 mins searching - unless, of course, they found the wreck, in which case they would spend 20 mins on the vessel before surfacing.
The Captain maintained way on the Boat - lest we should pull free from the wreck in the gentle current, and then we waited. Many optimistic comments were aired as our two colleagues were almost "willed" to find the vessel. After 25 minutes - a good sign in itself, they surfaced and began what seemed to be an agonisingly slow swim back to the stern of the Miss Nouran. Many questions were hurled in their direction - none were answered. Finally, they were standing on the Diving platform and fending this broadside of questions at close quarters.
"Its a Reef!" they said and I was shattered. Not being one who is able to hide his emotions, I tried to change the subject and looked at Ali Baba and said "These people must go Diving!" He agreed and began to think of "where." Just then, unable to contain the deception any longer, both Chris and Peter laughed and with the biggest smile I shall always remember Peter shook me by the hand. "Congratulations, Ned you have found your wreck!" he said. Then he produced the laminated picture - "straight out of the photograph!" he added with great pride and began to point out certain features that were still there - right below us.
The effect was immediate. Excitement on board - and, therefore, our morale, had been through a phase of extreme peaks and lows and now everyone caught the fever as we all prepared to get wet. The crew were equally as pleased and had all contributed to our success. The Captain - however, thought first of his boat and asked if the anchor was secure. Having been told it was, he switched off the engine.
The next pair into the water were Geof and Trudy and some minutes later I followed. One of the first things that Peter had seen as he dropped onto the wreck was the masthead lamp - still at the top of the forward mast and I was ready to take its photograph. Five, ten fifteen metres - "should be in sight any minute" I thought. Then it was thirty and even forty before I finally saw the seabed - with Miss Nourans large "grappling iron" style anchor ploughing a light furrow through the soft mud as the gentle current moved her through the water.
Unbelievably, the anchor had pulled free! That furrow, however, lead all the way to my shipwreck and perhaps it was only just out of sight. Then I thought of the others who were a few minutes behind me and pondered whether to go or stay. Just then, out of the gloom, came Geof and Trudy making it quite clear that they had also missed the wreck.
Back "upstairs" I prevented the others from a wasted journey and once again morale hit rock bottom whilst the search was resumed. By now it was 1 pm and the level of discontent from one quarter in particular was such that I became quite concerned. After all, I was not a paying guest and I did not wish to spoil another persons hard earned holiday. I called the divers together and asked them all what they wanted to do. The sentiments expressed from a single source were too strong to ignore - he wanted to leave the site immediately and go Diving elsewhere and we did just that!
Personally, I was gutted. I simply could not believe it. We had just found something very special and within an hour of this important discovery I could only stare at the furious wake created by the twin engines of the Miss Nouran at full speed as we steamed away to find another Dive Site!!!
We dived the site known to many as "the Freighter at Gobal Seghir." Incidentally, I subsequently identified this particular wreck as the Ulysses which was lost in 1887 - but that is another story! It was an excellent dive on a most interesting and photogenic wreck and I studied my fellow passengers with interest. There was no doubt that morale was at rock bottom - despite the many brave faces on display. That night, we anchored at Bluff Point and enjoyed the delights of yet another night-dive on that very small wreck.
The following morning was Wednesday and, once again, the dawn was greeted with the deep-throated roar of the twin engines as they came to life. For almost an hour, Ali Baba, the Captain and myself discussed the possibility of returning to the Rosalie Moller before deciding against the idea. Strange as it may seem, even I was against it - but then, I was hatching another plan. In the meantime, it was full steam ahead for that veritable ships graveyard - Shab Abu Nuhas Reef.
Already it was Wednesday and, this meant it was the last full days diving. With outgoing flights on the Friday, Thursdays are always limited - so we had to make the most of today. The first dive was a visit to the Greek freighter - Chrisoula K. Shane and I dropped down next to the rear mast and then visited the starboard gangway before rounding the stern to find the propeller. Entering the ship through a large tear through the port side we swam through one of the main holds above a cargo of Italian floor tiles. Eventually we came out on the starboard side and then made our way right up to the Bows before finally returning to base.
By the time breakfast was over, the Miss Nouran was positioned over the Carnatic and once again we were first in. This is another, quite outstanding example of what the Red Sea is able to offer - especially when you consider she went down 130 years ago this year. We even discovered a working porthole - though, for me it is the stern which provides the most photogenic aspect of this truly magnificent shipwreck..
The overall route of the Miss Nouran is something akin to a big circle - working her way from Hurghada during the first half of the week and then slowly back again during the latter part.
Our last night at sea, therefore, was spent at Giftun island where we enjoyed a really fabulous night dive and encountered some very different creatures altogether - including a large sleeping Turtle. Thursday was a beautiful day and we were able to sample the delights of two more outstanding Reefs - Elsomaya and Abu Ramada before the Diving was complete.
By this time we were back in radio range so I contacted Mohammed Reda - the local Manager of Diving World. I informed him of our discovery and, as my plan began to take shape, I emphasised the importance of the find to the Company and how I needed to return to the wreck. He then spoke with the Captain and Ali Baba before relaying our news and my request to London.
The response took a little time, but when it came, it was just what was needed. After my second week of Diving was over I could have the Miss Nouran for three days to explore the Rosalie Moller! This was fantastic news - but better was to come. Firstly, I would be accompanied by the same Captain and Crew - and my diving partner would be Ali Baba. Then, Geof and Trudy extended their own holiday to join me - and if that was not enough, Chris and Peter decided that they would go back to the UK on schedule only to return one week later to make the Dive Team complete. Needless to say the Rosalie Moller was never very far from my thoughts during those days.
Friday was Christmas Day - though I have never experienced such a non-Christmas in my life, and a very busy day it was too. A change of boat, new people to meet, another night on shore and, once again we were off. That journey, however, is another story and by New Years eve we were, once again, back in Hurghada and on New Years Day I was waiting to welcome old friends back onto the Miss Nouran.
By now, I had logged 42 dives and exposed over 60 rolls of film - but, more than anything else, I still had a date with a mast-head lamp. Geof and Trudy turned up - fresh from their week in the South and we swapped stories until Chris and Peter arrived. We were also made especially welcome by a crew who had become old friends - and took a great delight in sharing our excitement.
This time, we had sufficient buoys and line. Chris and Peter had brought a number of reels and I had borrowed some other items from Divers met during the intervening week. We made a jablix from a water bottle and generally got everything ready.
Once again, we departed on the Saturday morning just as soon as the vessel was refuelled. Although the weather had varied during the past fortnight, today it was perfect and the sea was like glass. Within two hours we were approaching the general area and, this time, we all knew what to do - the Captain was at the wheel with Ali Baba right beside him. Chris sat at the open window with the GPS, Geof manned the Decca and I looked for my compass bearings and made notes. Below us, Peter and Trudy were ready with jablix and buoys.
I noted down "search commenced 1255 hrs" but then everything happened so quickly I had no time for any more notes until I wrote down "Divers in at 1355 hrs!" It had taken us precisely one hour from commencing the search to putting the first pair in and, once again, this was Chris and Peter. They had a choice of two buoys and the one they selected was soon permanently secured to the stern of the Rosalie Moller. We then waited until they sent up a delayed SMB from the bows. This was the signal for the remaining two teams to go into action.
Geof and Trudy, having recovered the spare buoy, fixed it to the bows - replacing the SMB. Having given them a generous head-start, Ali Baba and I then followed them down - he with the mooring line - which he again fixed to the forward anchor chains, and me with my camera. As we descended, I suddenly saw Peters masthead lamp - just as he had described, sitting proudly on top of the forward mast and it really did become the first photograph I took.
The Rosalie Moller
Launched in 1910 as the "Francis," this 3963 ton cargo steamer was built by Barclay Curle & Co Ltd of Glasgow for the Booth Steamship Company of Liverpool. In March 1931 she was sold to the Moller Line and renamed the Rosalie Moller from when she saw considerable service on the Liverpool - China route until just before the outbreak of WW2.
Like so many vessels, she was regularly used for War duties and in October 1941 was carrying a cargo of coal to Alexandria. With safe passage through the Mediterranean almost impossible at this stage of the War, the Rosalie Moller made the lengthy journey round the Cape of Good Hope, up the east coast of the African Continent and into the Red Sea before being assigned to "Safe Anchorage H" to await passage through the Suez Canal.
These were difficult times and getting through the Canal was dependent on several factors. Enemy activity - especially Air Raids from German aircraft based in Crete, cargo priority and how long other vessels had been waiting had all to be taken into consideration. At this time, however, two vessels had collided further up the Gulf of Suez and were virtually blocking the entire seaway. This is why the "Thistlegorm" - with her much needed and valuable cargo, had remained at anchor for a full two weeks before being attacked and sunk!
On the night of 5 October 1941, German Heinkel 111s operating from Crete, crossed over the Egyptian Coast to search for a large Troopship. This was not found - though one aircraft did find the Thistlegorm and, at 0130 hrs 6 October 1941, the Thistlegorm was sunk. The resulting explosion lit up the night sky revealing even more ships at anchor and 48 hours later two aircraft returned. One of theme found the Rosalie Moller and, at 0140 hours 8 October 1941, she too went to the bottom. Interest in this particular vessel then faded for one very good reason.
After the War, raw materials were in short supply and throughout the Gulf of Suez many shipwrecks were raised and salvaged for their metal or cargo - whilst others were cleared as hazards to shipping. Understandably, many of these ships were wrongly identified by those who had other priorities and at least two accounts of the Rosalie Moller both show her to have been raised after war - and broken up! Of course, she was not.
Diving the Rosalie Moller
This magnificent example of British engineering sits upright on the seabed on an almost
perfectly even keel. The Bows are at 39m and the starboard anchor is deployed with the chain running down to the seabed at 50m and out of sight. The port anchor is fully retracted. The railings are largely still in place as are many accommodation blocks, winches, hawsers and other paraphernalia.
Almost eerily somehow, everything still appears to be tidy - clearly the Captain had run a tight ship. The cargo hatches have gone - revealing a full cargo of coal still in place. Pots and pans still hang in the Galley where they are now concreted to the walls above a large stove. Although the wooden decks have rotted away, each and every porthole is still in place - and not a single broken glass to be found.
You will understand, therefore, the high level of expectation as we finally approached the Bridge - but when we got there the cupboard was bare! The Bell, Telegraphs, Compass and Binnacle are gone - even the Captains safe lay forced open on the floor. Doubtless somebody will tell me, yet again, that these items were removed for important reasons of research and identification - but surely we can all read what is written on a Bell!
Elsewhere, the funnel is still standing - with the slightest list to port, the rear mast is also intact, all lifeboats davits are swung out and at 35m the steering gear at the stern is available for inspection. Below the stern, the rudder is at 45m and hard over to starboard. Curiously, one of the four propeller blades is missing. There is external damage on both sides - being slightly more extensive to starboard. None of the cargo of coal has spilled out.
The vessel is away from the regular Diving routes and does not enjoy the high levels of underwater visibility one expects from the Red Sea. That said, corals are growing on the decks and the fish life can only be described as prolific. This is a wreck where only the largest Grouper are found and, first thing in the morning Jacks and Tuna are seen feeding.
Identification was made possible by the Makers plate found within the engine room. Also made of brass - it was felt that it too was destined to disappear so it has been hidden deep within the wreck to serve as a permanent proof of her identity.
Although we did genuinely discover this shipwreck - all by ourselves, clearly we were not the first to have found her - and I suppose we never thought we would be. Yet those who have gone before us have not proclaimed their discovery to the rest of the Diving Community so that others might share the experience. The Rosalie Moller does not feature in any Red Sea Diving programme - so I am left to conclude, therefore, that somebody was keeping the secret all for themselves until they had finished stripping the vessel of all valuables. Then, and only then, might they have permitted other Divers to visit such a finely preserved time-capsule from another age of shipping and yet another age of War in the Middle East. I know nothing of the profits to be made from such finds - but I do know that all future visitors to this magnificent shipwreck are much the poorer for such greed.
Of course, no new shipwreck can ever be "undiscovered" and if I do not tell this story, then somebody else will. For the moment at least, however, I have something of a scoop which I am happy to share. The Rosalie Moller is a significant discovery and one which will enhance Diving within the Egyptian Red Sea. Diving World are planning to make this latest underwater attraction a regular feature for the more experienced Diver and, whilst I am assured - and quite satisfied, that they will make every effort to protect her from looters - she will eventually become "communal property" and visited by many Divers on a regular basis. How long, therefore, before she too is stripped of every item of interest to Divers
Last Updated: Aug 11th, 2011
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