The Arabic alphabet contains 18 letter shapes and if you add dots to the letters and other phonetic characters, you can have 28 letters. The alphabets usage spread after the rise of Islam. It is like a beautiful artwork.
In 332 BCE, Alexander the Great came to what is now named Alexandria, after him, with his mighty army. He built a city here, being used as a port for both the Mediterranean and the Nile River. After his death, the Ptolemys ruled Egypt. A lighthouse was built here, and was one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The great Library of Alexandria was begun about 284 BCE and completed 272 AD. Alexandria served as the regional capital until the Roman occupation, around 30 BCE to 641 AD. When the Arab occupation began in 642 AD, Alexandria soon became known as the second largest city in the world.
The present town of Aswan is built on the old market of the city of Abu, which the Greeks called Elphantina. It was capital of the 1st Hesep of ancient Upper Egypt, having great temples, obelisks, statues and columns made of red granite. Between 1960 1964, a great dam was constructed. It formed Lake Nasser and is the worlds second largest man-made lake. It provides irrigation and electricity. Many ancient monuments had to be moved as the waters backed up behind the dam.
A resort village founded in the 1950s, now a resort town where Egyptians go to relax and enjoy a vacation. The French once occupied Agami and remnants of a small fort still stand.
Situated west of Alexandria on the Mediterranean coast, Abusir is filled with ruins of ancient times when the Ptolemys ruled.
Amenhotep IV was one and the same person as Akhenaten. He changed his name about three years into his reign, when he officially changed the state religion from the worship of Amun to Aten. It didnt last very long though. When he died, it was changed back to Amun. There were several Amenhoteps. The Royal Palace and central government were located at No-Amon (city of Amon), which was later changed to Thebes by the Greeks. Akhenaten moved it north to a place he named Akhetaten (city or place of Aten), but it was moved back to Thebes after his death.
He was originally known as Imiut, which means He who is in his wrappings. He was the god of the dead, the god of embalming and was symbolized by either a mans body with a jackal head, or as a complete jackal, fully black in color. He is thought to be the son of Osiris and Nephthys. Amun
Amun was believed to have been the invisible god whose breath created everything he uttered. Many temple complexes were built in his honor. He is often depicted as a human with two tall plumes over his headdress. He is also depicted as a ram, which is a sacred animal. Another of his sacred animals was the goose. He was god of the wind and air. He didnt become a State Diety. Amun, or Amen, means what is hidden. He ruled during 2133-2000 B.C. He is also known as Amun-Ra. Later, he was made the Supreme God or King of the Gods.
Amenophis is the Greek name for Amenhotep.
Ay was Tutankhamuns successor. He was also his counselor and vizier. He took over the throne when Tutankhamun died. When his tomb was discovered, it had been looted and his mummy was never found. He was the 27th King of the 13th Dynasty. Ay didnt have any royal blood, but ruled from 1664-1641 BC.
Alabaster is a hard marble like mineral used to make statues and vases, is from Alabastron, a small village in Egypt. The alabaster from that area is pink colored and is a type of gypsum.
The ancient Egyptians had a funerary custom and that was to preserve the body, and make sure there were provisions left in their tombs for the afterlife. Egyptians believed that life continued after death. Much preparation was put into this task. Along with their bodies, many other items were placed in the tomb, such as, food, tools, even things like hair care products and other of their worldly possessions. They believed that the world of the afterlife was beautiful with green, fertile valleys, and everyone lived in peace and harmony with each other.
The ankh is the symbol of life and strength. It is also the word for mirror. Many people today wear the symbol around their necks on a chain. Amun-her-Khepshef
He is believed to be the son of Ramesses III, and Queen Isis. He is often titled "Heir to the Throne" and "Charioteer-in-Chief". He was fifteen years old at the time of his death.
Also known as khubz-arabi, this flat, round bread is easily split to make a sandwich..
Arayess is deep-fried lamb sandwich.
These are small pancakes, stuffed with cheeses and nuts, and usually covered with syrup.
Although the simple bow had been used from very early pre-dynastic times, the compound bow is believed to have been brought into Egypt by the Hyksos as there has been none found from before that era.
Abydos is located on the west bank of the Nile River, about 90 miles north of Luxor. There, can be found some of the oldest hieroglyphics ever known to man. The area was believed to be, by the ancients, "like a golden staircase leading to the afterlife." Many of the ancient pharaohs, kings, and queens wished to be buried in the magnificent temple complexes of Abydos.
Archeologists are people who study and learn about the past by digging up and unearthing objects from the past, from former times. Adze and Awl
An adze is an axe-like took used for trimming and smoothing wood. It has a curved blade, which is at right angles to the handle. This allows for short, controlled, rapid strokes.
An amulet was a small object that was worn around the neck, or sometimes carried, and was believed to ward off evil spirits.
This is the crown of Lower Egypt. It has ostrich feathers and ureaus and is associated with Osiris.
Apep was known to be a great serpent or dragon of the underworld and archenemy of the sun god.
This is a book explaining, along with the illustrations, the nocturnal journey of the sun god through the underworld from the western to the eastern horizon. The journey had many dangers, caused by demons that tried to stop the sun gods progress, but with help from friendly deities, he emerges triumphantly on the eastern horizon in the morning. The book appears on the walls of Thutmose III.
The Akhus were believed to possess light, which was seen as a precondition of life. These shining beings were believed to occupy the circumpolar region, known by the ancients as "DAT" or area untouched by death.
Located in the ancient area known as Nubia at the time of ancient Egypt, Abu Simbel is one of the most beautiful constructions. This temple is dedicated to Amun-Ra, Osiris, and Ptha, but mainly for the glory of its builder, Ramses II. The temple was carved out of a single rock hillside. The faade was carved by workmen who were prisoners. It has four colossal statues of the pharaoh, Ramses II, seated on his throne, supporting the structure. During its hayday, the front was painted with brilliant colors, which have now completely disappeared. Inside is the sanctuary where there stood statues of the triad to whom the temple was dedicated, together with one of Ramses himself. It was here that the miracle of the sun took place. Twice a year, on the 21st of March and the 21st of September, at 5:58 A.M., a ray of sunlight would penetrate this passage between the entrance and the shrine, and bathe Amun-Ra and Ramses II in light. A few minutes later the ray would move on and fall on Osiris. After another 20 minutes the light would disappear without ever lighting the god Ptah, who was believed to have been the god of darkness. There is also a smaller temple beside his, dedicated to his wife, Nefretari. It originally stood next to the Nile River, but was moved block by block to another site in 1965. It was repositioned in 1969 so that the miracle of the sun occurred again, just as in ancient times, two thousand years ago.
Avaris is an ancient Hyksos fortress, and also their capital. The Hyksos ruled and controlled Avaris from about 1786-1567 B.C. It is located in the eastern Delta of the Nile, about 15 miles south of Tanis. The word avaris means, "mansions of the desert plateau."
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