The capital of Egypt. There are over sixteen million people who live in this city. It was established in 969 by the Fatimids, who conquered Egypt. There are more than 500 mosques in Cairo. It also has the worlds first university, al-Azhar, which was founded in 970.
These were funerary equipment, included in tombs. They were more than likely couches on which the dead had been laid while the priests were performing the seventy days of preparation of the mummy. Each usually had a different sacred character specified, each with a different sacred "duty" to perform and a specific part of the body to protect.
Over the last several thousand years, caravans of camels were used to transport jewels, silks, spices and more from one country to another. Caravans usually traveled in autumn, winter and early spring when the weather is cooler.
A waterfall. There were six cataracts on the Nile River in ancient Egypt.
A person who makes maps.
A carved inscription of a pharaohs name. The inscription is contained in an oval, symbolizing an official scroll.
Jars used to hold the internal organs of a body, placed in the tomb.
The outer stones forming the face of a pyramid, usually made of white limestone.
To decorate metal by punching or raising its surface with a tool.
A raised path or road made on an embankment.
Where the Egyptians believed that people went after death; it was a better place than on earth.
Also known as Khufu. The pyramid of Cheops is located in Giza and is the greatest pyramid in the world. Cheops was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and lived about 2300 BC. He reigned almost 24 years. He led his military into many battles and was thought to have been a ruthless leader.
Known as the "Ship of the Desert", camels were used for transportation, meat and milk. The one humped camels, or dromedaries, are commonly known as the Arabian camel. They are stubborn creatures that spit and kick.
The Egyptian chariot was a handsome and lightweight piece of transportation usually used by pharaohs. The person driving it would stand directly over the axle so there was less stress on the horse. Egyptian chariots were built to be much quieter than other chariots. They had two wheels and were pulled by a horse.
Ancient Egyptians wore charms made of turquoise, silver, rose quartz and malachite. Worn around the neck or wrist, many wore scarab beetles as their charms.
Born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt, Cleopatra later became Queen of Egypt. She was known for her lovely singing voice and spoke nine languages. He became Queen at age 17. She married her brother, Ptolemy. She was known for her love affairs with Julius Caesar and Marc Antony. Upon hearing of Marc Antonys death, she committed suicide, supposedly by allowing herself to be bitten by an asp. She was buried in Alexandria.
The word copt is derived from the ancient word, hikaaptah, which is one of the names for Memphis, the first capital of Egypt. The religion is based on the teachings of St. Mark, who brought Christianity to Alexandria, Egypt in the early days after Christs death.
A caliph is a person who acted in Muhammads place after his death, as a leader of Islam. There were four distinct periods of Caliphs. The Rashiduns reigned from 632-661. They were just leaders in both religion and battles. The Unnawiyys reigned from 661-750. These caliphs were more military than religion. The Abbasids reigned from 750-1258. These caliphs were stronger in religion. Since 1258 the caliphs power began to decline until it eventually disappeared.
Tiny semolina pasta served with spicy meat and vegetable stew. One of the most popular dishes in the Arab world.
This is a writing style made from wedge-shaped strokes, usually inscribed on stone, metal, wax or clay. It originated in Mesopotamia and later became the dominating writing style of the Middle East.
Cush (or Kush)
An ancient kingdom of Nubia. Its rulers conquered and reigned over all of Egypt at one time. Eventually they were overrun by the Ethiopians in about 350 AD.
A horse drawn carriage.
A caravan resthouse built of storage rooms for trade goods. It has a courtyard for animals and bedrooms on the upper floors for merchants.
Linen or papyrus held together by glue, then molded into coffins and funeral masks.
A judge knowledgeable in Islamic law.
A symbolic tomb, honoring the dead, but not containing the body.
3rd member of the great Triad of Thebes. His parents were Amen and Mut.
A venomous snake found in Egypt. There are many varieties. Cobras heads flatten out when they are about to attack.
Grown in Egypt since ancient times.
A plant with yellow flowers, smells sweet but tastes bitter. It has feathery leaves and grows well in the sun and the sandy soil of Egypt.
Most stone columns in ancient Egyptian buildings were covered with hieroglyphics. They were built mainly of granite to support the buildings. There were different types of columns used, such as, the lotus flower, papyrus, palm, eight sided and even a sixteen sided column.
Crowns of Egypt
The crown of Upper Egypt was white and cone shaped with a serpent in front. The crown of Lower Egypt was red, shaped like a cap and had two projections. One was straight and the other spiral. Sometimes both crowns were worn together, forming the Double Crown and that symbolized the union of both parts of Egypt.
An arch or roof, setting layers of braces, each slightly inward, until they met at the ridgeline.