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Flinders Petrie


The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh

by W. M. Flinders Petrie

 

1883

 

Introduction


 

1. Methods employed xiii
2. Scope of the present work xiv
3. Use of expressions xv
Ch 1. Objects and means.
4. Need of fresh measurements 1
5. Outline of work demanded 3
6. Stay at Gizeh 6
7. Assistance obtained 7
Ch 2. Instruments.
8. List of instruments 10
9. Details of lineal instruments 11
10. Details of angular instruments 15
Ch 3. Methods of measurement.
11. Lineal measures 22
12. Angular measures 23
Ch 4. Excavations.
13. Inside Great Pyramid 27
14. Casing, &c; of Great Pyramid 29
15. Second Pyramid, casing, &c. 30
16. Third Pyramid, casing, &c. 31
17. Workmen 32
Ch 5. Co-ordinates.
18. Station marks 34
19. Table of co-ordinates 34
Ch 6. Outside of Great Pyramid.
20. Relation of sockets to casing 37
21. Length of sides of casing 39
22. Levels and positions of sockets 40
23. Levels up the Pyramid 41
24. Angle of the Pyramid 42
25. Form of top of the Pyramid 43
26. Casing of the Pyramid 43
27. Pavement of the Pyramid 44
28. Basalt pavement 46
29. Rock trenches 47
30. Trial passages 50
31. Connection of inside and outside 51
32. Original position of entrance 51
33. Mouths of air channels 52
34. Blocks above entrance 53
Ch 7. Inside of Great Pyramid.
35. Entrance passage, length 55
36. Entrance passage, azimuth and angle 58
37. Subterranean chamber, &c 59
38. Ascending passage, length 61
39. Ascending passage, azimuth and angle 64
40. Passage to Queen's chamber 65
41. Queen's chamber, plan 66
42. Queen's chamber, height 67
43. Queen's chamber, niche 69
44. Queen's chamber, channels 70
45. Gallery, length and angles 71
46. Gallery, roof and walls 72
47. Antechamber and passages 75
48. Antechamber dimensions 76
49. Antechamber, details of walls 77
50. Antechamber granite leaf 78
51. King's chamber, walls 79
52. king's chamber, plan 80
53. King's chamber, roof 81
54. King's chamber, floor 82
55. King's chamber, working 82
56. King's chamber, channels 83
57. Coffer, character 84
58. Coffer, position 84
59. Coffer, offsets to surfaces 85
60. Coffer, calipering 89
61. Coffer, volumes 90
62. Chambers of construction 91
63. Chambers of construction, details 92
64. Summary of interior positions 95
Ch 8. Outside of Second Pyramid.
65. Relation of rock to casing 96
66. Length of sides of casing 97
67. Angle of Pyramid, and height 97
68. Courses of the Pyramid 98
69. Pavement 99
70. Levelled site 99
71. Peribolus walls 100
72. Barracks of workmen 101
Ch 9. Inside of Second Pyramid.
73. Entrance passage 104
74. Horizontal passage 104
75. Great chamber 105
76. Coffer, character 106
77. Coffer dimensions 107
78. Lower chamber, and passage 108
Ch 10. Outside of Third Pyramid.
79. Nature of the casing 110
80. Length of the sides 111
81. Angle and height of Pyramid 112
82. Courses 112
83. Peribolus walls and temple 114
Ch 11. Inside of Third Pyramid.
84. Entrance passage 117
85. First chamber 117
86. Second chamber 118
87. Granite chamber 118
88. Loculus chamber 119
89. Original entrance passage 120
Ch 12. Lesser Pyramids of Gizeh.
90. Northern small Pyramid 121
91. Middle small Pyramid 123
Ch 13. Positions and orientation of the Pyramids.
92. Relative positions of Pyramids 125
93. Orientation of large Pyramids 125
94. Change of earth's axis 126
Ch 14. The granite Temple, &c.
95. Position of granite Temple 128
96. Description of Temple 129
97. Workmanship of Temple 132
98. Original appearance of Temple 133
99. Date of Temple 133
100. Constructions near Great Pyramid 134
101. Basalt and diorite casings 135
102. Diorite at Gizeh 136
Ch 15. Tombs of Gizeh.
103. Angles of mastabas 138
104. Campbell's tomb 138
Ch 16. Notes on other Pyramids.
105. Abu Roash, Pyramid of men ... ra 140
106. Sakkara, Pyramid of Pepi 142
107. Dahshur, Great Pyramid 144
108. Dahshur, South Pyramid 144
109. Dahshur, South Pyramid door 145
110. Mastaba Pyramids, Sakkara & Medum 146
Ch 17. Historical notes.
111. Climate of early times 149
112. Men ... ra of Abu Roash 151
113. Khufu and KhnumuKhufu 152
114. Ratatef 152
115. Khafra 153
116. Menkaura, and the Third Pyramid 153
117. Brick Pyramids 155
118. Petukhanu's tablet of Khufu 156
119. Destruction of buildings 157
120. Accuracy of Greek historians 159
Ch 18. Architectural ideas of the Pyramid builders.
121. Angles of the Pyramids 162
122. The accretion theory of building 163
123. Application of it to the large Pyramids 165
124. Inapplicability of the theory 165
125. Plugging of the Pyramid passages 166
126. Doors of the Pyramids 167
127. Relative workmanship of Pyramids 169
128. Use of plaster 171
Ch 19. Mechanical methods of the Pyramid builders.
129. Nature of tools employed on hard stone 173
130. Examples of sawing 174
131. Examples of tubular drilling 175
132. Examples of turning 176
133. Rate of working 177
134. Tools not actually found 177
135. References on other details 177
Ch 20. Values of the cubit and digit.
136. The cubit in the Great Pyramid 178
137. The cubit in other buildings 179
138. Divisions of lists in the tombs 179
139. Decimal division of cubit 180
140. Values of the digit 180
141. Comparison with previous results 181
Ch 21. Theories compared with facts.
142. The comparisons based on the facts 182
143. The Great Pyramid base 182
144. The Great Pyramid height 183
145. The Great Pyramid angle 184
146. The Great Pyramid courses 184
147. Rock trenches by great Pyramid 185
148. Positions of the chambers 186
149. Lengths of the passages 187
150. Dimensions of the passages 189
151. Angles of the passages 190
152. Subterranean chamber 191
153. Queen's chamber 191
154. Antechamber 193
155. King's chamber 194
156. Coffer 195
157. Synopsis of Great Pyramid theories 198
158. The Tombic theory 200
159. Second Pyramid, outside 201
160. Second Pyramid, inside 202
161. Second Pyramid, coffer 203
162. Third Pyramid 204
163. Comparison of previous surveys 205
Ch 22. History of the Great Pyramid, and its design.
164. Nature of the site 208
165. Source of the stone 209
166. Organisation of the labour 210
167. Preparation of the site 211
168. Planning of the courses 212
169. Raising the stones 212
170. Tools and chips 212
171. Deterioration of the work 213
172. Plans altered 214
173. Closing of the Pyramid 215
174. A second coffer 216
175. Violation of the Pyramid 217
176. Inscriptions on the Pyramid 217
177. Destruction of the Pyramid 219
178. Summary of probable theories 220
Appendices
On the arrangement of a triangulation
179. Nature of survey of short distances 223
180. Distribution of the observations 223
181. Order of observations 224
The rejection of discordant observations
182. Continual and occasional errors 226
183. Discrimination of occasional errors 227
184. Weighting observationss by their divergence 228
185. Application of the law of distribution 228
186. Practical elimination of occasional errors 230
187. Probable error, a factor, not a term 231
188. Plus and minus errors always possible 232
189. Secondary probable errors 233
190. Applicability of approx formulae 235
191. Testing the normal distribution 236
Graphic reduction of triangulation
192. The need of a graphic method 238
193. Old and new methods of graphic reduction 239
194. The practice of graphic reduction 239
195. Delineation of the traces 241
196. Accuracy in the present survey 241
197. Applicability of graphic reduction 243

illustrations

plate 1.

plate 2.

plate 3a

plate 3b

plate 4.

plate 5.

plate 6

plate 7.

plate 8.

plate 9.

plate 10.

plate 11.

plate 12.

plate 13.

plate 14.

plate 15.

plate 16.

Plan of triangulation

Basalt pavement - trenches

Ends of trenches

Trial passages

Surrounds - 2nd Pyramid

Walls around Third Pyramid

Plan of granite Temple

Accretion theory

Courses of the Great Pyramid

Sectionals of the Great Pyramid

Relative position of the sockets

Air channels, casing, entrance

Casing, bosses, wainscot

Walls of the King's chamber

Early egyptian stone cuttings

Instruments employed

Traces of observations

 

 

Source: James Henry Breasted Ancient Records of Egypt Part Two, 20ff; 41f, 84f; 124; 344