# The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh by W. M. Flinders Petrie

Chap. 7. Inside of Great Pyramid Pages 55 - 95

[Text irregularites fixed and tables checked Sept 02].

[Text and table irregularites under scrutiny Sept 02].

35 p. 55 Having, then, fixed the original position of the doorway of the Pyramid, we may state that it was at 668.2 .1 above the pavement of the Pyramid; 524.1 .3 horizontally inside (or S. of) the N. edge of the Pyramid casing; and its middle 287.0 .8 E. of the centre * of the Pyramid ; or 3723.6 from E. side, and 4297.6 from W. side, at its level; the probable error being that of fixing the length of the sides.

* Whenever any point is described as E. of the centre of the Pyramid, it is uniformly meant that it is that amount E. of a vertical plane, parallel to the mean of the Pyramid's E. and W. sides, and which passes through the centre of the Pyramid. Similarly of similar descriptions N., S., and W.

Thus we have the following positions in the entrance passage, reducing all to the true beginning of the floor :

 W. Floor W. Wall Base W. Wall Top W. Roof E. Roof E. Wall Top Doorway, original End of "basement sheet" Station mark Prof. Smyth's joint numbers Scored line p. 56 Floor Ascending Pass 1 2 1 3 2 4 2 5 3 6 4 5 7 6 8 7 8 9 10 11 10 12 11 13 12 14 13 15 14 16 15 16 17 18 17 19 18 20 19 21 20 0 .3 124.2 127.90 178.75 226.46 285.29 340.56 406.04 465.46 531.67 584.15 700.28 736.28 776.39 827.16 878.58 915.09 963.61 1003.69 1028.59 1063.82 1110.64 1127.71 1174.22 0 .3 276.63 331.79 414.21 474.02 481.59 516.26 551.66 606.87 651.91 686.98 763.70 806.14 865.32 891.79 926.69 967.14 996.27 1056.78 1106.13 1136.06 1177.14 348.10 1177.7 1232.1 1318.5 Rock 1188.1 1340.1 Rock 1192.4.1 1243.7 1296.1 1350.7 Rock 1163.6 1207.1 1262.3 1347.5 Rock.

The above measures were taken by rods from 124.2 to 285.29 (the rods jointing together with butt ends), by steel tape from 276.63 to 1177.14, and by rods from 1163.6 to the rock; all duly corrected for temperature. On comparing them with Professor Smyth's measures, it will be found that his measures make the passage length about an inch shorter on an average; this is fairly accounted for (1) by his being all piecemeal measures added together, (2) by the rude method of making scratches with a screwdriver to mark the lengths of p. 57 rod on the stone (L. and W. ii., 46), and (3) by there being "always a certain amount of risk as to the measuring rod slipping on the inclined floor" (L and W. ii., 35). All these errors would make the reading of the length shorter than it should be; and all were avoided by the use of a steel tape lying on the side of the floor. Nevertheless, I tested again, by rod measure, some of the points where the difference of Professor Smyth's measures were greatest from the steel tape, and they come out thus :

 Between joints By steel tape Again by rods By Prof Smyth 5 to 6 on floor 7 on wall to 8 on floor 14 on wall to 15 on floor 14 on wall to 16 on floor 15 on wall to 16 on floor 59.42 22.72 11.60 36.92 3.53 59.45 22.72 11.58 36.93 3.47 59.2 22.2 10.9 37.6 2.9

These will practically show what errors may creep in, by not using a continuous measure like a steel tape. The object of measuring the joints, as well as the total length, by steel tape, is sufficiently illustrated by this comparison.

One source of error may arise from following the coarsely-scratched prolongations of the anciently drawn lines, and of the ascending passage floor and roof. These have been made by modern measurers; and they were always rejected, and a more accurate method employed.

The measures from the steel tape onwards, by rods, down to the end of the built passage, where it rests on the rock, are not of the same accuracy as the others; the broken parts of the passage sides, and the awkwardness of measuring over the large block of granite, without any flat surface even to hold the rods against, prevented my taking more care over a point where accuracy is probably not of importance.

For the total length of the entrance passage, down to the subterranean rock-cut part, only a rough measurement by the 140-inch poles was made, owing to the encumbered condition of it. The poles were laid on the rubbish over the floor, and where any great difference of position was required, the ends were plumbed one over the other, and the result is probably only true within two or three inches. The points noted down the course of the passage, reckoning from the original entrance (i.e., the beginning of the rock on the E. side of the roof being 1350.7), are the following :

 E. W. Beginning of inserted stones, filling a fissure. Joint in these stones. End of these inserted stones. Sides of passage much scaled, 1 or 2 inches off, beyond here Fissure in rock Mouth of passage to Gallery End of sloping roof (4,137 Vyse, corrected for casing). 1,569 1,595 1,629 3,086 3,116 4,143 2,750 1,555 None 1,595 3,066 3096 3,825 3,856

36 p. 58 The azimuth and straightness of the passage were carefully measured. The azimuth down the built part was taken by reference to the triangulation, which in its turn was fixed by six observations of Polaris at elongation, from a favourable station (G). The azimuth to the bottom of the rock-cut passage was observed independently, by five observations of Polaris at elongation. The observations of the straightness throughout gives a check by combining these two methods, and they are thus found to agree within 19", or just the sum of their probable errors, equal to only .09 inch lineally on the azimuth of the built part.

The results are :

 Azimuth Altitude Mean axis of whole length. Mean axis of built part alone. Same by offsets from 3' 44" axis. (Same by Prof. Smyth, two days. 3' 44" 10" 5' 49" 7" 5' 28" 12" 4' 27" and 5' 34" 26 31' 23" 5" ? 26 26' 42" 20"? 26 26' 43" 60")

The observations of the straightness of the walls, floor, and roof of the passage, when all reduced to offsets from its mean axis of the whole length stand thus :

 Distance from original entrance From 3' 44" azim. W. Mid. E. From 26 31' 23" alt Roof. Mid. Floor. 460 710 990 1110 1291 1505 1741 2069 2481 2971 3711 4113? 4140 Mean error 21.1 .3 W. 20.5 20.9 .2 W. 20.6 20.7 0 20.8 21.1? .1 E. 21.3 20.5 .2 E. 21.0 20.4 .4 E. 21.1 20.8 .2 E. 21.1 21.6 .3 W. 20.9 21.0 0 21.0 21.3 .4 W. 20.5 21.3 .4 W. 20.5 ... ... 20.8 .23 23.2 .4 24.1 23.4 .2 23.9 24.1 + .4 23.3 23.4 23.8 23.6 .1 23.9 23.4 .4 24.2 23.4 24.3 0 24.3 23.6 .6? 24.9? 23.9 .30

(Floor at 1110 interpolated from clinometer curve.)

But the passage in the built part, and indeed for some 40 feet below that, is far straighter in azimuth than the lower part; taking this upper 2/5ths of it alone, it has a mean axis of 5' 49" 7" In azimuth, and varies thus :

 W. Mid. E. At 460 710 990 1291 1505 1741 20.86 20.78 20.70 21.23 20.75 20.76 .06 W. 0 .05 E. 0 0 .01 W. 20.77 20.77 20.80 21.22 20.75 20.74 Mean error .02

p. 59 These offsets only being read to 1/20th inch (the 1/100ths merely resulting from computation) it is remarkable that the errors of the midline of the passage are so minute; and it shows that in this particular we have not yet gone within the builder's accuracy; readings to 1/100th inch or to 1" on the longer distances, are now required.

The absolute position, then, of the middle of the S. end of the entrance passage floor will be, in level, 668.2 (4140 X sin. 26 31' 23") .8 difference of floor offsets = 1181 1 ?; in distance from N. base of pyramid 524.1 + 3704.3 = 4228 2? or 306 N. from mid-plane; and in distance E. from the midplane 287.0 [ sin. (3' 55" 3' 44") x 3704 ] .4 difference of offsets = 286.4 1.0.

37The Subterranean chambers and passages are all cut roughly in the rock. The entrance passage has a flat end, square with its axis (within at least 1), and out of this end a smaller horizontal passage proceeds, leaving a margin of the flat end along the top and two sides. This margin is 4.5 wide at E., 3.2 at W., and 5.4 to 6.0 from E. to W. along the top. The dimensions and distances are as follow, from the S. end of the floor of the entrance passage (as deduced from the roof, which is better preserved) ; and the axial positions and levels are by theodolite observations :

 Distance from End of E.P. Floor. Distance from Mid. Plane of Pyramid. Width E. to W. Top. Base. Mid. from Entrance Axis, continued. Mid. E. from Mid line of Pyramid. Height E. W. Level above End of E. P. floor. Level below Pyramid Pavement. Beginning of Horiz Passage Fissure In Passage N Door of S Chamber S Door of S Chamber N Door of L Chamber S Door of L Chamber In S Passage In S Passage In S Passage In S Passage In S Passage End 0 20 76W. 91E. 121 218 291 346 * 672 760 900 1040 1180 1318 306N. 88N. 15N. 40S. 366S. 1012S. 40.8 32.9 32.3 32.4 31.6 32.7 31.9 33.0 32.0 33.3 29.5 29.5 29.6 27.3 26.7 26.7 28.1 29.0 30.1 30.0 26.0 .4W. 1.0W. .5W. 1.9W. 9.7W. 286.4 285.8 286.3 284.9 277.1 48.5 35.5 36.0 31.0 + ** 26.3 26.0 28.6 27.0 29.5 29.3 0 Top + 38.3 Top + 38.9 Top 6.6 Top 2.6 1181 floor 1143 roof 1142 roof 1188 roof 1184 roof Large Chamber, E. Wall 325.9; at 100 from West. Wall 329.6?; N. Wall 553.5; S. Wall 554.1 Side Chamber W.Wall 69 to 70 ; N.Wall 70.3; S.Wall 72.3 Top +125.3 *** Top + 40 to + 48

The large chamber walls are therefore distant from the Pyramid central axis, 302.9 E. at N. wall; 299.6 E. at S. wall; 250.6 W. at N. wall; 254.5 W. at S. wall; 40 S. and 366 S. The central axis thus not passing through the chamber, but 40 inches inside the rock of the N. side.

In the chart above :

* E. side of doorsill is at 351, and W. side 347, the wall not being fully dressed down there.
** This doorway rounds off at the top, rising 1 inches in the 10 inches.
*** The top is + 124.3 at N. doorway, 125.4 to 127.6 at S. doorway; the roof being cut away higher, just in the corner.

p. 60 The side chamber is an enlargement of the passage, westward and upward, as are all the chambers of the Pyramid; it is very rough and uneven, and encumbered now with large blocks of stone. The large chamber is most clearly unfinished, both in the dressing of the walls, and more especially in the excavation for the floor. The walls have an average irregularity estimated at .7 and projecting lumps of rock are left untouched in some parts. The roof is more irregular, estimated average variation 3. The floor is most irregular, at the W. end it rises at the highest to only 10 inches from the roof; and over all the western half of the chamber it is irregularly trenched with the cuttings made by workmen to dislodge blocks of the rock. It is, in fact, an interesting specimen of quarrying, but unfortunately now completely choked up, by Perring having stowed away there all the pieces of limestone taken out of his shaft in the floor. After dislodging several blocks, I crawled in over the knobs and ridges of rock, until jammed tight from chest to hack in one place; and thence I pushed about one 140inch rod, by means of the other, so as to measure the length up to the Western end. To measure along the W. side is impossible, without clearing away a large quantity of stones; and as there is no place to stack them safely without their going down the shaft, I could only measure the width at 100 from the W. end, perhaps somewhat askew. The lowereasternpart of the floor, 140 below the roof, which is comparatively flat, is, nevertheless, very irregular and roughly trenched, quite unfinished. The best worked floor surface is just around the square shaft, 198 below the roof, and about 40 below the main part of the floor, which is 155 below roof on a knob of rock beside the shaft. The square shaft is not parallel to the chamber, but is placed nearly diagonally.*

* Like the shaft of the tomb chamber of Ti at Sakkara; an unusual plan.

Its distances to the walls are, N.W. corner 135 to N. wall ; N.E. corner 60 to E. wall ; S.E. corner 90 to S. wall. Its sides are, N.E. 68 to 75? S.E. 82; S.W. 80; N.W. 70 above, 79 below (the N. corner being rounded above); N. to S. diagonal 100. The S.E. and S.W. sides stop at 67 deep, or 265 below roof, or 1,321 under pavement ; leaving a ledge about 20 inches wide, a second or deeper part of the shaft goes downwards, the N.E. and N.W. sides being continuous with those of the upper part ; it is, in fact, a smaller shaft descending out of the N. corner of the larger. The sides of the smaller shaft are, N.E. 57? S.E. 53? S.W. 60, N.W. 56. The original depth of the smaller shaft I could not see, it was apparently about 40 inches according to Vyse, when Perring sunk his round shaft down in the bottom of the ancient square shaft. This hole in the dimlylighted chamber, about 30 feet deep (with water in it after heavy rains have rushed down the entrance passage), and with a very irregular and wide opening, makes measurement about here somewhat unpleasant. I avoided filling the shaft with the earth removed from the passage, or with the stones which Perring excavated from it, in case anyone should afterwards wish p. 61 to excavate farther at the bottom. The southern passage is very rough, apparently merely a first driftway, only just large enough to work in, intended to be afterwards enlarged, and smoothed; its sides wind 6 or 8 inches in and out.

38 The Ascending passage from the entrance passage is somewhat troublesome to measure, owing to the large plugs of granite that fill some 15 feet of its lower part; and also to the irregular way in which much of its floor is broken up.

For connecting it with the entrance passage, we must first settle the most probable value of its angle, in order to carry on the projection of its floor; and to complete it over the plugging and breakage, which prevent direct measure-ment. The angle of the whole passage will be discussed further on ; it will suffice to say here that the mean angle is 26 2' 30"; and there is therefore a presumption that the plugged part is about the same angle, and not the 26 of the entrance passage. This is confirmed by direct plumb-line measure of the angle of the plug-blocks at their lower end, giving 26 7' ( 2'?); and noting that the end is square with the portion of passage beyond it to within 5'. Also the actual angle of the plug-blocks may be computed from Prof. Smyth's sloping measures, combined with my levelling between the floors of the passages, and plumbing up to the lower end of the plugs.*

* The elements in question are (1) Prof Smyth's plumb-line 48.5 on slope below his zero in Ascending passage ; and (2) 180.5 on slope of entrance passage, below beginning of Ascending roof. (3) My level in A. P., 71.3 on slope above C.P.S.'s zero in A.P. (4) My level in E.P. 1015.0 on slope below C.P.S.'s E.P. zero. (5) Difference of my A.P. and E.P. level marks 156.2 vertically. (6) My plumb-line on E.P. floor 1027.3 on slope below C.P.S.'s E.P. zero. (7) Height on my plumb to floor of A.P. 37.0. (8) height of plug-blocks 47.3, and angle of end 26 7', (9) Angle of E.P. at junction 26 21'.
From these measures we get 125.1 tan. q +142.9 sin. q= 124.7 ; q = 26 12'

This gives 26 12' for the angle of the lower 300 inches of the passage; and 5' of variation would require a difference of .4 inch vertical on .9 sloping. Hence the other data confirm this so far, that it had better be adopted as the angle through the plugged part; until some one shall improve on Prof. Smyth's sloping measure, or on my levelling.

The junction of the passages was not projected over the broken part un-certainly, as had been done before; but a plumb-line was hung from the W. side of the Ascending passage roof, in front of the plug-blocks; and measures vertical, perpendicular, and sloping, were taken to the plugs, the fragments of the ascending, and the top and bottom of the entrance passage. Thus the whole was knit together to a true vertical line, the place of which was fixed on the entrance floor. From the mean of these measures, and 26 12 ' as the ascending angle, with 26 21' as the descending angle at that spot (by Prof Smyth), the Ascending passage roof starts vertically over 1110.90 on the sloping floor of the p. 62 entrance, reckoning from the casing face; and the floor cuts the entrance floor at 1110.64 from the same, both probably .1.

Further, the lower end of the plug-block is 74.19 from the intersection of the floors; and the upper end 50.76 from the intersection of the roofs. Having thus fixed the beginning of the Ascending passage, by the point where its floor produced onwards intersects the floor of the entrance passage, we can proceed up the Ascending passage from this as a starting point. The distance past the plug-blocks being determined as above described, and that from the plug-blocks to the S. end of the passage, by steel tape measure on the E. side of the floor; then, the tape being corrected for temperature and tension, the results are thus, on the sloping floor :

 Floor, E. side. Base of E. wall. Junction of passage floors Beginning of actual floor Base of plugblocks Top of plugblocks, present Top of plugblocks, ancient Joint numbers. Smyth's. Dixon's. 1 27 (Petrie's levelling mark 2 26 25 6 23 7 22 21 8 20 19 10 18 11 17 12 16 14 13 15 13 16 12 11 17 10 19 9 20 8 21 7 22 6 23 p. 63 5 25 4 26 3 27 28 2 Gallery, plumb from wall over door 29 Floor joint Wall joint and edge over door 1 0 59.8 74.2 252.7 277? 298.2 324.0 about 333.6 496.6 552.3 604.4 716.3 749.0 799.1 854.2 922.4 955.0 1008.0 1080.3 1130.0 1161.5 1202.4 1255.4 1337.9 1368.6 1427.1 1488.7 1546.5 1546.8 0 298.2 333.6 374.9 496.6 552.3 593.3 637.9 690.3 716.1 748.9 812.1 848.1 922.2 955.3 1006.9 1044.9 1095.0 1129.9 1161.5 1214.2 1273.2 1337.9 1377.7 1515.5 1547.0

On comparing these measures with Prof. Smyth's, it will be seen that he makes the passage about 3 inches shorter ; and that this difference mainly occurs in the lower part, where the floor is much broken. Several lengths were therefore measured as tests, just as in the entrance passage, and the results are :

 1st measure by tape. 2nd measure by tape. Prof. Smyth, by one rod. Mark (1) to mark (2) Mark (1) to 22 (Dixon) 22 Dixon to 21 Dixon 21 Dixon to 8 Smyth 8 Smyth to 20 Dixon 20 Dixon to mark (3) 11 Smyth to 12 Smyth 12 Smyth to 16 Dixon 16 Dixon to 14 Dixon 14 Dixon to 13 Smyth 13 Smyth to 15 Smyth 50.0 56.3 33.3 8.3 50.1 68.2 50.1 56.3 33.5 8.2 by rods 50.2 68.4 49.7 50.2 55.3 67.7

The close agreement of these two series of measures, particularly in those parts twice measured by tape, will show (as in the entrance passage) that the error is certainly in the rod measures, and due to the same causes as the error in the entrance passage, i.e., slipping, irregular placing on broken floor, and the marking off of each length.

The result therefore is that from the intersections of entrance and ascending passage floors, to the floor joint at the E. side of the grand gallery doorway, is 1546.8 on the slope.*

* On the W. side this joint is 1.2 N. of the side joint of doorway.

The granite plugs are kept back from slipping down by the narrowing of the lower end of the passage, to which contraction they fit. Thus at the lower, or N. end, the plug is but 38.2 wide in place of 41.6 at the upper end: the height, however, is unaltered, being at lower end 47.30 E., 47.15 mid, 47.26 W.; and at upper, or S. end 47.3. In the trial passages the breadth is contracted p. 64 from 41.6 to 38.0 and 37.5 like this, but the height is also contracted there from 47.3 to 42.3. These plug-blocks are cut out of boulder stones of red granite, and have not the faces cut sufficiently to remove the rounded outer surfaces at the corners: also the faces next each other are never very flat, being wavy about .3. These particulars I was able to see, by putting my head in between the rounded edges of the 2nd and 3rd blocks from the top, which are not in contact; the 2nd having jammed tight 4 inches above the 3rd. The present top one is not the original end; it is roughly broken, and there is a bit of granite still cemented to the floor some way farther South of it. From appearances there I estimated that originally the plug was 24 inches beyond its present end.

It has been a favourite idea with some, that two horizontal joints in the passage roof just south of the plugs, were the beginning of a concealed passage: I therefore carefully examined them. They are 60.5 (or 60.1 second measure) apart vertically, and therefore quite different to the passages of the Pyramid, which are 47 perpendicularly or 52 vertically. Further, there is no possibility of the blocking up of a passage existing there; as the stone of the roof is continuous, all in one with the sides ; the three roof-blocks between the two horizontal joints are all girdle-blocks, either wholly round the passage, or partially so; and the block N. of these is a long one, over 125 inches from E. to W., and continuous into both walls. These vertical girdle-blocks are a most curious feature of this passage (first observed and measured by Mr. Waynman Dixon, C.E.), and occur at intervals of 10 cubits (206.3 to 208.9 inches) in the passage measuring along the slope. All the stones that can be examined round the plugs are partial girdle-blocks, evidently to prevent the plugs forcing the masonry apart, by being wedged into the contracted passage. Many of the stones about the blocks in Mamun's Hole are over 10 or 11 feet long; the ends are invisible, but probably they are about 15 feet over all.

39For the angle of the passage, and its straightness, it will be well to consider it all in one with the gallery floor, as they were gauged together all in one length. The angle of slope I did not observe, as I considered that that had been settled by Prof Smyth; but the azimuth was observed, by a chain of three theodolites, round from the entrance passage. The straightness was observed by offsets to floor and side all along it, read from a telescope at the upper end of the plug-blocks. When I came to plot the results, I found that there were no measures taken at the point where Prof. Smyth's theodolite was set up. The sloping floor is nowhere, having been entirely cut away at the beginning of the gallery; and the top of the ramp (to which the theodolite had been referred) was not offsetted by me, nor was its slope measured by Prof Smyth's clinometer for 300 inches from the place. Hence we cannot say exactly what direct relation the theodolite bore to the passage; but we can obtain the angle of slope very satisfactorily, by taking the angles observed to signal at bottom of ascending p.

65 passage, and to signal at top of gallery, and then (knowing the distauces of these signals) calculate the angle of slope from signal to signal. This, when corrected for lower signal being 3 too high, gives 26 12' 50" for mean angle of both passage and gallery together. Hence, from my offsets to the places of these signals, the absolute angle, and the variations from it, can be obtained for either part independently. Thus we have the form and direction of the ascending passage, reckoning from the beginning of its floor on the entrance passage floor, with its variations, as follows :

 Frombeginning From 4' 3' azimuth From 26 2' 30" altitude 692605206507008401045 122013651540 W.20.821.0 mid.00 E.20.721.620.920.721.421.3 21.921.221.1 roof.23.123.623.9 mid. .5 0+ .1 E. floor.24.123.623.522.423.3 23.724.123.923.6

The surfaces are so much decayed and exfoliated, that it is only just at the ends that two original faces can be found opposite to one another; hence the width and height cannot be measured, and the offsets can only be stated to one surface.

From this altitude, the sloping length of the passage being 1546.8, the horizontal length will be 1389.5, and the vertical height 679.7, both being corrected for difference in the offsets of the ends. The determination of the azimuth has, unhappily, a large probable error, 3' (owing to bad foundation for the theodolite in Mamun's Hole); and its direction, 4', is so close to that of the Pyramid side, that it may be assumed parallel to that 3'. This, on the passage length, = 1.2 inches for the probable error of the place of the upper end of the passage, in E. to W. direction in the Pyramid.

These, added to previous amounts, give for the absolute place of the floor end at the latitude of the E. wall of the gallery (172.9 + 679.7) = 852.6 3 level above pavement; (1517.8 + 1389.5) = 2907.3 .6 horizontally from N. edge of Pyramid, or 1626.8 .8 northwards from centre; and 287 1.5 for middle of passage eastward from centre of Pyramid.

40The horizontal passage leading to the Queen's Chamber is the next part to be considered. This was measured with steel tape all along, and the levels of it taken with theodolite. The results for its length and levels are thus, reckoning from the mean door of the gallery at 1546.8 from beginning of ascending passage :

 p. 66 Distance fromDoorway Northward fromPyramid centre Floor level Roof level Mean doorway on floor On flat floor Floor joint, No. 8, Smyth Floor joint, No. 16, Floor joint, No. 21, On floor Floor joint, No.25, Smyth Step in floor Chamber N. wall, top of door Chamber N. wall, side of door Floor joint, No.30, Smyth Niche, N. side Niche, first lapping Chamber, E. apex 052312.0623.0870.210001177.71307.0 1523.91524.81527.01620.71626.5 1626.8 .81575 .81314.8 .81003.8 .8756.6 .8627 .8 449.1 .8319.8 .8 102.9 .8102.0 .899.8 .86.1 .8.3 .8 852.6 .3858.4 .3857.4 .3856.1 .3856.2 .3 854.6 .3834.9 .3834.4 .3 903.8902.3902.4901.0 901.31080.1

The azimuth of this passage was not measured, but the beginning of it is 287 1.5 E. of the middle of the Pyramid ; then for the axis of it at the end we may say the same, or 287 3, since the gallery above it only differs about two inches from that quantity. In the above measures of length there is a steadily accumulating difference of about 1 in 300 between Prof. Smyth's measures and these, for which it seems difficult to account; but as in the other passages, I have always found on retesting the measures, that such differences are due to errors in the cumulative single rod measures, and not in my steel tape (which was always verified at the starting point after measuring), it seems unlikely that the steel tape should be in error here. Hence I should adopt these measures without alteration.

41 In the Queen's Chamber it seems, from the foregoing statement, that the ridge of the roof is exactly in tbe mid-place of the Pyramid, equidistant from N. and S. sides; it only varies from this plane by a less amount than the probable error of the determination.

The size of the chamber (after allowing suitably in each part for the incrustation of salt) is on an average 205.85 wide, and 226.47 long, 184.47 high on N. and S. walls, and 245.1 high to the top of the roof ridge on E. and W. walls. The variations of the horizontal quantities in detail are as follows, from the mean dimensions.

p. 67

 AboveFloor From below Apex, E. Wall. From below Apex, W. Wall. Below Ridge of Roof. To N. Wall. (sum) To S. Wall. To S. Wall. (sum) To N. Wall. W.Wall. to E.Wall. Mean of All 102.92 205.68 102.76 102.67 206.02 103.35 226.47 24021018015612799766780 + .16+ .06+ .10+ .02 .32 205.67205.60205.72205.79205.63 .17 .14 .06+ .09+ .27 .14 .16 .09+ .37 broken206.15205.68206.29 + .29 .25 .06 .46 .31 .240+ .24+ .27+ .45 225.51225.79226.12226.37226.91227.47 .50 .37 .11 .10+ .17+ .55

For example, to take the first entries, at 180 inches over the floor, on the E. wall, the N. wall is (102.92 + .16) = 103.08 from a vertical line below the apex of the roof; and the S. wall is (102.76 .17) = 102.59 from the same apex line : the sum of these quantities, or the total width, being 205.67. Thus the mean distances of the N. and S. walls from the apex on the E. and W. walls is given at the top of each column ; and beneath that the small variations from those mean vertical wall faces. In the last division are given the distances of the E. and W. walls apart, below their apices ; both the mean dimension, the variations from it, and the total at each point. It will be observed that the E. and W. walls have both a uniform tilt inwards; if we allow 14' for this as an average, the mean from a straight line inclined that amount is .057 on E. and .025 on W. ; a remarkably small amount of error, comparable to the extremely fine work and close joints of the stones themselves. Also the ridge of the roof is not exactly over the middle of the chamber at either end. Beside the above resulting length of the middle of the chamber on the floor, separate measures were taken on the two walls; these give N. 227.41, middle (from above) 227.47, S. 227.61 ; mean of all 227.50 for floor length.

42 In the matter of height, the courses vary a good deal ; and far more care was spent on the closeness, than on the regularity of the joints. For a starting point in measurement, the general floor is hopelessly irregular, consisting plainly of rough core masonry; and furthermore, it has been built over with similar rough masonry, which was afterwards stripped down to insert the chamber walls. This is proved by there being no fewer than eight edges of sunken spaces upon it, made (according to the universal habit of pyramid builders) to let in the inequalities of the upper course into the surface of the course below it. These sunken edges are well seen in other parts of the core masonry, and their p.

68 meaning here is unequivocal. But all round the chamber, and the lower part of the passage leading to it, is a footing of fine stone, at the rough floor level; this projects 1 to 4 inches from the base of the walls, apparently as if intended as a support for flooring blocks, which have never been introduced. It is to this footing or ledge that we must refer as the starting point; though what floor was ever intended to have been inserted (like the floor of the King's Chamber, which is inserted between its walls) we cannot now say. Certainly, a floor at the level of the higher part of the passage, would not reconcile everything ; as that higher floor is also not a finished surface, but has sundry large round holes in it, like those in the chamber floor and elsewhere; intended, apparently, for use in process of building. Starting, however, from this footing at the base of the walls, the mean elevation of each course above the floor is as follows, with the variation + or from the mean scale, at eleven points around the chamber :

 Mean of Corners N.W. Corner N.E. Corner E. Side Niche S.E. Corner S.W. Corner W. Side W. N. N. E. Mid E. S. S W. Mid 245.1 214.35 184.47 179.09 156.07 127.13 99.13 67.44 34.13 0 + .67 + .23 .23 + .01 + .28 + .01 .37 .18 .05 .11 .17 + .06 .24 + .67 .03 .13 .23 door .18 + .20 .73 .09 + .12 + .05 0 0 N.+1.0; S. .1 + 2.05 .47 + .33 + .17 .03 + .09 + .17 .2 .47 + .29 + .28 + .05 .12 .01 + .42 .39 + .01 + .50 + .32 + .06 + .22 en .01 c .35 + .31 .11 .22 + .02 um .49 .41 .09 .05 + 3.08 be + .55 r + .45 .01 .20 + .08 + .09 + 3.38 ed S. .5; N. .6 2.05 .67 .17 .33 .13 .05 .19 .26

The mean course thicknesses, and their mean differences beingfrom the base upwardsthus :
34.13 m.d. .19, 33.31 m.d. .18, 31.69 m.d. .14, 28.00 m.d. .21, 28.94 m.d. .27, 28.40 m.d. .48 to top of N. and S. walls. In the first column above, 245.1 is the apex of the E. and W. walls, where the sloping roof stones end at their junction; and the differences entered here, N. and S., are due to the N. and S. slabs not ending at the same level, one having fallen a little below the other in building; the highest shows, therefore, probably the intended point, and this is 1080.1 above the pavement. 214.35, in the first column, refers to the topmost joint on the E. and W. walls. 184.47 is the top of the N. and S. walls, and a joint on the E. and W. walls. 179.09 is a joint that occurs at each side of the E. and W. walls, but which does not run far, being soon shifted upward to the 184 level. 156.07, 127.13, 99.13, are all joint levels around the chamber. 67.44 is a joint level, signalized by the top of the doorway and of the channel mouths in N. and S. walls. 34.13 is a course around the p. 69 chamber. And 0 is the fine stone footing of the walls, which is about the level of the variable and rough floor of the chamber. It must be remembered that the above figures only give differences from a mean scale, and do not profess to be levels; the columns, in fact, being only rigidly connected at the two sides of any one corner, which hence have no dividing line between them in the table. Assuming, however, that the above series of heights of E. and W. walls are pretty closely adjusted to the heights in the corners next to each, we have for the sloping roof block, the following figures, calculating from the above quantities :

E. end, N. side.

W. end, N. side.

E. end, S. side.