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The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh by Sir Flinders Petrie - Course Data according to Metrology


PAVEMENT and COURSE DATA according to METROLOGY


Updated September 2002. If you believe that the Great Pyramid was built to plan, that it's individual courses consisted of regular blocks cut to size, then this chart may be of some interest. This is the bottom of the chart on the previous page but with added columns for the .363 inch post division. For information on the post measure and post division you will have to become familiar with the metrology site. In the second last column are now entered the two estimated block thicknesses for the opposite diagonal (obtained from Petrie's bars). It is not known which of the two blocks fits a given corner because Petrie doesn't tell us.


At the bottom of the chart both pavement and courses are examined.

PAGE 4 of 4.

N.E.
level

.363
level

.363
unit

block
thick

block
thick

.363
unit

S.W.
level

.363
level

.363
unit

block
thick

block
thick

.363
unit

var
level

var
thick

var
thick
4 corners

N.W. S.E.
?
thick

course

1959.8
1931.7
1903.0
1874.4
1851.9
1827.1
1801.8
1776.1
1750.5
1724.2
1697.6
1669.6
1638.4
1602.9
1567.3
1540.0
1502.1
1461.0
1427.7
1399.7
1368.8
1336.9
1303.0
1266.7
1228.5
1187.4
1137.6
1111.4
1085.1
1058.8




















1399.728
1368.873
1336.929
1303.170
1266.870
1228.755
1187.373
1137.642
1111.506
1085.007
1058.871




















3856
3771
3683
3590
3490
3385
3271
3134
3062
2989
2917

28.1
28.7
28.6
22.5
24.8
25.3
25.7
25.6
26.3
26.6
28.0
31.2
35.5
35.6
27.3
37.9
41.1
33.3
28.0
30.9
31.9
33.9
36.3
38.2
41.1
49.8
26.2
26.3
26.3
27.8




















30.855
31.944
33.759
36.300
38.115
41.382
49.731
26.136
26.498
26.136
27.951




















85
88
93
100
105
114
137
72
73
72
77

1959.4
1931.7
1902.1
1876.5
1851.5
1826.7
1801.6
1776.3
1750.7
1724.2
1697.7
1669.6
1638.2
1603.1
1568.2
1540.0
1501.9
1460.8
1428.7
1399.3
1368.6
1336.8
1303.0
1266.7
1228.7
1186.9
1137.7
1111.4
1085.2
1059.2




















1399.728
1368.873
1336.929
1303.170
1266.870
1228.755
1187.373
1137.642
1111.506
1085.007
1058.871




















3856
3771
3683
3590
3490
3385
3271
3134
3062
2989
2917

27.7
29.6
25.6
25.0
24.8
25.1
25.3
25.6
26.5
26.5
28.1
31.4
35.1
34.9
28.2
38.1
41.1
32.1
29.4
30.7
31.8
33.8
36.3
38.0
41.8
49.2
26.3
26.2
26.0
28.3




















30.855
31.944
33.759
36.300
38.115
41.382
49.731
26.136
26.498
26.136
27.951




















85
88
93
100
105
114
137
72
73
72
77

0.4
0
0.9
2.1
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.2
0
0.1
0
0.2
0.2
0.9
0
0.2
0.2
1.0
0.4
0.2
0.1
0
0
0.2
0.5
0.1
0
0.1
0.4

0.4
0.9
3.0
2.5
0
0.2
0.4
0
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.7
0.9
0.2
0
1.2
1.4
0.2
0.1
0.1
0
0.2
0.7
0.6
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.5

0.4
0.9
5.5
5.2
0.1
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.6
0.5
0.2
1.8
2.5
1.1
0.9
0.4
0.3
1.2
1.5
0.3
0.6
1.1
0.7
0.4
0.7
1.1
0.2
0.4
1.0
0.6




















30.6/30.8
31.9/32.4
34.8/34.9
36.4/37.0
37.8/38.2
41.2/41.3
49.0/50.1
26.2/26.4
26.0/26.4
26.1/27.0
27.7/28.3

60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31

N.E.
level

.363
level

.363
unit

block
thick

block
thick

.363
unit

S.W.
level

.363
level

.363
unit

block
thick

block
thick

.363
unit

var
level

var
thick

var
thick
4 corners

N.W. S.E.
?
thick

course

1031.0
1002.8
974.7
945.5
915.8
885.0
852.7
820.3
787.3
752.8
729.0
705.5
667.4
636.3
608.3
579.4
550.1
520.7
490.9
461.2
427.5
391.5
355.1
317.3
278.1
240.1
199.9
155.9
107.7
58.6

1030.920
1002.969
975.018
945.615
915.849
884.994
852.687
820.380
level

















199.65

2840
2763
2686
2605
2523
2438
2349
2260


















550

28.2
28.1
29.2
29.7
30.8
32.3
32.4
33.0
34.5
23.8
23.5
38.1
31.1
28.0
28.9
29.3
29.4
29.8
29.7
33.7
36.0
36.4
37.8
39.2
38.0
40.2
44.0
48.2
49.1
58.6

27.951
27.951
29.403
29.766
30.855
32.307
32.307

33.033
across

77
77
81
82
85
89
89
91

1030.9
1003.1
975.1
945.9
916.3
885.1
852.7
820.4
787.3
752.2
729.7
705.6
666.5
635.4
607.1
579.0
550.8
521.6
495.9
461.9
429.3
391.6
357.4
322.5
278.4
238.8
199.9
155.4
110.1
57.6

1030.920
1002.969
975.018
945.615
915.849
884.994
852.687
820.380
NE / SW

















199.65

2840
2763
2686
2605
2523
2438
2349
2260


















550

27.8
28.0
29.2
29.6
31.2
32.4
32.3
33.1
35.1
22.5
24.1
39.1
31.1
28.3
28.1
28.2
29.2
25.7
34.0
32.6
37.7
34.2
34.9
44.1
39.6
38.9
44.5
45.3
52.5
57.6

27.951
27.951
29.403
29.766
30.855
32.307
32.307

33.033
diagonal

77
77
81
82
85
89
89
91

0.1
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.1
0
0.1
0
0.6
0.7
0.1
0.9
0.9
1.2
0.4
0.7
0.9
5.0
0.7
1.8
0.1
2.3
5.2
0.3
1.3
0
0.5
2.4
1.0

0.4
0.1
0
0.1
0.4
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.6
1.3
0.6
1.0
0
0.3
0.8
1.1
0.2
4.1
4.3
1.1
1.7
2.2
2.9
4.9
1.6
1.3
0.5
2.9
3.4
1.0

1.5
0.4
0.8
0.8
0.5
0.2
0.3
0.7
0.8
1.3
1.0
1.5
0.6
0.6
0.8
1.4
2.9
4.4
6.6
1.1
3.4
3.2
5.2
5.3
2.0
2.2
0.8
5.1
4.9
2.4

27.7/29.2
28.3/28.4
28.8/29.6
28.9/29.4
30.7/30.7
32.5/32.5
32.3/32.6
32.8/33.5
34.4/35.2
23.2/23.3
23.2/23.2
37.6/37.9
31.6/31.7
27.7/27.9
28.6/28.7
29.4/29.6
26.9/29.8
25.4/29.7
29.3/35.9
33.3/33.7
34.3/35.0
36.6/37.4
32.9/38.1
39.8/44.5
38.0/40.0
40.4/41.1
44.2/44.8
43.1/44.1
48.6/53.4
56.5/58.9

30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

Note : This chart is subject to modification while being constructed


Pavement

From a flat rock on the NE corner of the pyramid Petrie took readings to test a level pavement. Overall, the pavement only rises about 1 inch and falls about 1 inches against Petrie's zero level but towards the South there is a significant dip to the tune of about 5.5 inches. This dip is reflected in Petrie's data for the SE corner where the block combination producing the first two courses (56.5 + 53.4 = 109.9 inches) conflicts with the top of course 2 above the NE zero level (105.5). The difference is 4.4 inches. This poses a real problem because the 1st course block positioned on the SE corner is the least thick of the 4 corner blocks, when by rights, if the dip to the South was noticed during the 4th dynasty, it should have been the thickest. It is only when we attempt to raise the SE corner that the blocks on the SE. and SW. give an acceptable level, ie; 56.5 + 53.4 = 109.9 inches for the SE corner and 57.6 + 52.5 = 110.1 inches for the SW corner, a difference of just 0.2 inches. Considering that the pavement was laid around a central rocky outcrop the leveling was almost certainly done along the edges and not across the diagonal. This is also confirmed with the blocks along the North edge, NW corner 58.9 + 48.6 = 107.5 inches, NE corner 58.6 + 49.1 = 107.7 inches, again reflecting just a 0.2 inch error along the top of the Northern edge of the 2nd course.

So in summary the pavement is reasonably level (plus or minus about 1 inch over zero level NE. corner), but the pavement under the South edge of the pyramid towards the SE corner has considerably subsided taking the core blocks with it. This obviously affects a section of the masonry around the SE corner but overall it would have little impact on the great bulk of masonry and the recorded levels across the NE. SW diagonal.

Leveling both the pavement and the first course of limestone blocks doesn't seem to have been a priority for the masons although when the 2nd course was laid some concern must have been raised because both to the South and the North the masonry is levelled to within 0.2 inches. leveling across the diagonals at this stage was impractical, hense the first two courses are slightly tilted from the South down towards the North.

Subsequent courses.


Course 3


was laid with blocks that absorbed the tilt from South to North and across the NE. SW. diagonal we see a level accurate to within 0.5 inches. We wonder how they obtained this level across the diagonal when there was obviously a huge rock face blocking their view. We also wonder about the SE corner, and which of the two possible blocks listed above were added.

Course 4

records a perfect level across the NE. SW. diagonal and for the first time we have to admit that at this height sighting across the diagonal must have been a real possibility. Either that or some other means of leveling using posts on top of the course must have been used. We have no way of knowing if this was repeated across the other diagonal and from here on we have to ignore the column in the chart above which gives us a choice of block thicknesses for the remaining corners. Metrologically, it is noted that this first attempt to level across the NE. SW. diagonal almost converts into a round number of common cubits, ie; 550 post divisions of .363 inches or 11 common cubits of 18.15 inches (see chart above and then the metrology site).

Course 5 to course 21.

Various degrees of leveling are witnessed for the next 17 courses although course 9 reflects a strong attempt to take a level across the NE. SW. diagonal and it is at this height we might consider the rock center to give way to a perfectly flat platform.

Courses 22 to course 30.

Course 22 is the second time we see a perfectly flat surface across the NE. SW. diagonal and upon course 22 are laid another 3 courses producing impeccable levels. Not only that but block thicknesses becomes remarkably uniform, so much so that we can now examine them for their metrological content. If there is such a thing as a successful block or a standard block then levels 24 and 25 are where they occur because on both levels, block thicknesses are identical. This known thickness in post division language 89 x .363 = 32.307 inches is in fact to be found on the Saqqara fragment unearthed in Zoser's famous 3rd dynasty Step Pyramid complex. It is the measure asigned to the last chord of the fragment. In the chart above the metrological progress up to the 29th course has been continued not so much to confirm block thickness on the individual courses but rather to test how the successive levels correspond to multiples of the post division. In this regard the levels are extremely revealing.

To be continued with courses 31 - 60.

Courses 31 upwards. The masons now seem to have perfected leveling across the diagonal on a number of courses and on course 38 we see an absolute zero recorded for both level and thickness of block. This course is especially revealing for a metrology that advocates the use of the common cubit and its post divisions. Course 38 could be seen as the pinnacle of their achievement and there appears to be no coincidence to the fact that the masons uses blocks 100 post divisions or two common cubits thick (100 x .363 = 2 x 18.15 inches) ... see the chart above.

Last Updated: Aug 4th, 2011


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