The first king of this name came to the Persian throne after the assassination of his father Xerxes and his brother, the Crown Prince Darius in 465 B.C. The Persians had ruled Egypt uneasily, frequently resorting to brutal repression, since its conquest in 525 B.C. For much of Artaxerxes' reign Egypt was in a state of rebellion, led by a Libyan prince, Inaros. The rebellion failed but Inaros' example, though he himself was captured and executed, lived on to inspire resistance against the Persians.
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Last Updated: June 21st, 2011